Wednesday, November 27, 2019

I love you, and I love you, too, there is no Review Essay Example

I love you, and I love you, too, there is no Review Paper Essay on I love you, and I love you, too, there is no Book interested recognizability, hooked I feel very good, even if it is unintentional exposure Sonia Adler that the main character so thats crazy infantile and cynical aunt thirty that neither beating nor love no one is capable of, nor accept love; but whats there to take she even know her, the love itself, which is constantly with her and around, unable to: so arranged it so happened, it happened (the origins of the character in the story is not investigated, but the type dovlno common among men). And just what is the central figure is so thats like and not bad, but mentally sovreshenno deaf and blind woman, allows the author to show us the many others girls and women who have all seriously and deeply, which are not only passionate disposable passion can, but know how to be faithful, true, noble, caring, sometimes sacrificial without pathos; who know how to give love unconditionally and seem real. And, as it turns out, the heroine, in the name of the narrator, in spite of its we akness, sees it, feels understood against the background of all the bitterness and emptiness of their own destiny, but can not do anything not given. The only thing that can make to get out of life. I do not understand when this text respond, as an apology for lesbian promiscuity and superficiality. Lead in the first person so saomounichtozhayuschy hard-hitting story about the senselessness and eventually just disappear in the void (whether real, or metaphysically it fail) is, in my opinion, absolutely unambiguous verdict bezlyuboviyu, whether it is dark or natural.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Black British Literature The Lonely Londoners Essays

Black British Literature The Lonely Londoners Essays Black British Literature The Lonely Londoners Essay Black British Literature The Lonely Londoners Essay Introduction In this take-home exam, I will outline some very typical criteria for Black British Literature respectively Samuel Selvons The Lonely Londoners. Selvon wrote this novel in the year 1956 and it was the first book that focused on poor black immigrants from the West Indies who belong to the working-class in London. These people are also known as the Windrush Generation because they were the first large group of post-war West Indies immigrants who were brought to the United Kingdom by a ship that was called the MS Empire Windrush. In these times there were no restrictions for immigrants by law, because the United Kingdom was looking for people who wanted to work in England, as a consequence of the lack of so many people who died in the Second World War. Samuel Selvon himself is a Trinidadian author and The Lonely Londoners is his most recognized piece of writing. He, as well as his fictional characters in the book, moved to London in the 1950s. Therefore The Lonely Londoners belongs in t he sub-genre of migration novels. His remarkable work is said to be the debut of Black British writing and so I will talk about some major aspects that are typical for this genre. Analyzing The Lonely Londoners Those migration novels are usually autobiographical and deal with the topic of the first generation of immigrants, their home as well as their exile and the life then and now, whereas with now I mean the time when the book was written. A quote from the very beginning (page 1) perfectly underlines the assumption that this book is going to tell something about the immigrants new home and where they are coming from: â€Å"One grim winter evening [], Moses Aloetta hop on a number 46 bus at the corner of Chepstow Road and Westbourne Grove to go to Waterloo to meet a fellar who was coming from Trinidad on the boat-train.† The quote tells us from where and how those people come to England and referring to the term â€Å"fellar†, Im going to

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Analyse and assess the key issues in managing conflict within the Essay

Analyse and assess the key issues in managing conflict within the workplace, with special regard to the relative decline in indu - Essay Example Either of these will be used depending on the scenario at hand, which is a task befalling HR managers, as they must correctly assess the scenario and identify which conflict management style would be effective. From a broader perspective, HR professionals should look to equipping their workforce with not only technical skills but also intercultural and interpersonal skills to enable them deal with the rising pressure (Trudel and Reio 2011, p.395). Conflicts at the workplace are inevitable and need not be feared as non-existence of them indicates unhealthy work relationships. The focus should be on making the conflicts constructive as constructive conflicts are characterized by increased cooperation, stronger relationships, improved outcome quality, being mostly cognitive and separating the person from the problem. Therefore, managers should look to proper handling of conflicts rather than eliminating them all together so as to reap these benefits. The primary tool of handling conflic ts is communication, according to the communication systems approach, where conflicts are seen to be a result of failed or poor communication between the conflicting parties. There are elements within communication systems established in an organization, where the elements are the parties communicating, medium being used and messages being sent and/or received. When these elements are interconnected, the communication systems adopted may trigger the process of conflict. Hence, managers are urged to set up proper communication systems to ensure that where conflicts arise, they are constructive (Collins 2008, p.6). Following the communication systems approach, conflicts are viewed as episodes that occur during the process of communication. These episodes come about when the aforementioned elements interconnect and subsequently all the elements affect the conflict process and its outcomes. In addition, according to this approach, the conflict process arises in two contexts- physical an d psychological, where the former refers to the attributes of the actual physical environment such as the size of the room, noise in the surrounding area and how furniture is arranged within the room. The latter refers to culture of an organization that determines how communication will take place; both these contexts affect the way in which the sender constructs the message and the way the recipient interprets it (Collins 2008, p.6). Regardless of the approach to be adopted, HR should understand that failure to properly handle conflicts within the workplace increases the level along with frequency of future conflicts. This goes on to affect productivity, job performance and employee learning. Closely linked to conflict management styles is workplace incivility as it is seen to determine the outcome. Workplace incivility refers to individual responses to certain scenarios that are brought about by negative actions. These responses may be counterproductive and as such should be monit ored to avoid further escalation and repeat of workplace conflicts. When dealing with conflicts it is important to look into the instigators together with the targets of deviant behaviour; and also consider that deviant behaviour could be a trigger, cause or outcome of workplace conflicts. Additional exchanges as a result of deviant behaviour create a conflict spiral where a conflict will be seen to escalate and possibly spread to ‘

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

The role of evil in Aristotle, Kant and Hannah Arendt Essay

The role of evil in Aristotle, Kant and Hannah Arendt - Essay Example Immoderation - it is the form of evil, which is related to the sphere of reason, and not to the sphere of will. The subject possessing this disadvantage is normal in his judgments but is abnormal in his relation to his intentions and the ways of their realization. In other words, immoderate is able to reasonably judge the events which take place, but he acts unreasonably. The flows of rage, love passions and other strong incentives lead him to the state, when he possessing the knowledge, does not possess it in the same time. In these cases knowledge is left as if strange and indifferent towards his soul. Immoderation is different depravity - the next form of evil - the inability to control one's incentives. According to Aristotle, depravity is the very moral evil. It does not exclude the well-developed reason, sense, strong will, but it presupposes their negative directness. Depraved person is fully guilty in his behavior, as he has got the ability to be another, but he does not use it. Thus, having divided the evil into the three different displays, Aristotle has separated amorality from weakness and foolishness.3 Having crated the source of the amorality not in some separate psychological ability, but in the insufficient abnormal development of any of them (or all of them), Aristotle has closely come to the understanding of the systematic inner world of the human being. After Aristotle, the close connection between the understanding of the moral evil and the disharmony of the psychic functions has strongly entered the culture. It has appeared to be compatible with the rationalistic requirements for the prevailing of the reason over the passions, as well as with the Christian condemnation of tyranny as the source of... The aim of this work is to discuss the evil from the viewpoint of Aristotle, Kant and Arendt, and to see how the concept of genocide applies to their ideas. We will have thus to conclude, which of the concepts is the best applied to the issue of genocide.The question of evil has been the subject of many discussion and philosophic works. It has always been interesting to see how different philosophers viewed the understanding of evil, and how they applied it to reality. It is difficult to think of any philosopher who has not devoted at least some part of his (her) works to the concept of evil. The aim of this work is to discuss the evil from the viewpoint of Aristotle, Kant and Hannah Arendt, and to see how the concept of genocide applies to their ideas. We will have thus to conclude, which of the concepts is the best applied to the issue of genocide. Arendt's idea of evil for me appears to be the most appropriate of all described. The notion of banality of evil without roots is the b est presentation of the genocide concept from the philosophic point of view. It appears to be true that we can't grasp the idea and the reasons of genocide with our minds, the roots of genocide are also closed for us. Thinking about the difference between the banality and the commonplace of the genocide, it appears that in reality genocide is far from being a commonplace event, but trying to come down to its roots and the incentives which made people perform such actions, we come to the conclusion that not only no roots are seen there,

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Relationships and Human Behavior Perspectives Essay Example for Free

Relationships and Human Behavior Perspectives Essay Reviewing human behaviors from different perspectives, including the five main perspectives of biological, learning, social and cultural, cognitive, and psychodynamic influences, can sometimes shed light on why humans act the way they do. Using these perspectives to review how relationships begin, develop, and are maintained can provide a deeper understanding and context of this phenomenon. Framing love relationships with these different perspectives also helps to show how the perspectives themselves differ or are similar in relation to how they consider relationships as being formed and maintained. The biological perspective contends that innate causes drive human behavior. Specifically, this perspective states that the actions of the nervous system and genetic heredity lead to different types of behavior (McLeod, 2007). From this perspective, hormonal reactions and feelings of reinforcement in the brain that are associated with a particular individual lead people to start relationships (McLeod, 2007). Additionally, the relationship is maintained because humans have an innate desire to reproduce and pass their own genetic material on to their offspring, and in order to drive this urge, the brain continues to trigger feelings of pleasure and hormonal releases to strengthen the association between a given person and good feelings (McLeod, 2007). This perspective is somewhat unique from the other ones in how it views relationships, because it claims that advanced cognitive processes are not even necessary for a relationship to last; instead, only biochemical processes are required . The next type of perspective, the learning perspective, claims that learning through association leads to specific behaviors, and that individuals will generally learn to enact behaviors that they see are rewarded (Mikkelson Pauley, 2013). From this perspective, humans form relationships because they see other relationships, such as those of their parents, externally rewarded, and come to associate the notion of â€Å"love† with reward. The rewards that one receives from a relationship, such as attention, compassion, or even financial security, are associated with â€Å"love† over time, which strengthens the relationship and makes people more likely to  maintain a relationship after they have been involved in it for some time (Mikkelson Pauley, 2013). Like the biological perspective, the learning perspective deems relationship behavior as something beyond humans conscious control and does not necessarily require conscious thought, although the learning perspective does not claim to know the internal processes that drive it, and it does require that humans have at least the ability to learn in order for them to be involved in relationships (Mikkelson Pauley, 2013). Social and cultural perspectives claim that humans are ingrained with what constitutes â€Å"right† behavior through socialization. Because people grow up, in many cases, in households with married parents, or at least where the parents date other individuals, children learn early on that relationships are not only acceptable, but actually desirable (McLeod, 2007). This notion is further reinforced through messages given to the child through the media, their friends and other family members, and most people they come in contact with, all of whom deem â€Å"love† to be one of the highest goals a person can achieve. Individuals therefore seek out relationships in their teen years because they have been told that it is a positive objective to strive toward, and they are further reinforced in their views by their partner and others who know them after dating or getting married, which leads the person to continue their relationship (McLeod, 2007). This perspective is unlike the learning and biological perspectives in that it does not rely on reflexes or innate drives, but instead requires complex thought, and, moreover, socialization; a person living outside of society would likely have no desire to be in a relationship, according to this perspective. The cognitive perspective claims that human thought is what drives all behavior. In this sense, then, humans enter relationships because they see relationships as something that they desire, and which will provide them with some type of enjoyment or reward for seeking out (Mikkelson Pauley, 2013). If they find that they do receive some type of benefit from dating a person, they will make the decision to develop the relationship further, learning more about the person and perhaps even getting married, if they believe that they are sufficiently compatible with the other person for the  relationship to last and continue to be rewarding (Mikkelson Pauley, 2013). This perspective, like the social and cultural perspective, is very reliant on human thought as a driver of relationships, but the cognitive perspective deems relationships an individual choice rather than a result of societal pressure. Lastly, the psychodynamic perspective contends that behavior is due to interactions between the conscious and the subconscious mind. A relationship might begin because a member of the opposite sex might remind an individual of the loving relationship they had with their parents, but in order to sublimate the inappropriate desire for ones parents, the individual seeks out a relationship with a person outside of their family. The relationship is maintained because it provides the person with ego fulfillment (McLeod, 2007). Like the cognitive and social perspectives, the psychodynamic perspective describes relationships in terms of human thought and cognitive activity, but unlike those other perspectives, the psychodynamic outlook believes that humans are essentially bound to enter into relationships, because it ascribes the behavior to innate drives. In this sense, the psychodynamic perspective is somewhat like the biological perspective. All of these different perspectives, then, can provide different types of insight into human relationships. References McLeod, S. (2007). Psychology Perspectives. Retrieved from Mikkelson, A. C., Pauley, P. M. (2013). Maximizing Relationship Possibilities: Relational Maximization in Romantic Relationships. Journal Of Social Psychology, 153(4), 467-485. doi:10.1080/00224545.2013.767776

Friday, November 15, 2019

Men Cheat On Partner For Sexual Reasons Psychology Essay

Men Cheat On Partner For Sexual Reasons Psychology Essay Abstract According to most of the literature available, men cheat on their partner for sexual reasons (Wilson, Mattingly, Clark, Weidler, 2011). The aim of this study is to gain an in-depth understanding of the reasons that lead men to cheat by taking a mens point of view. The sample consisted of six male participants who are in a committed relationship and who presumably never cheated. The participants were never asked whether they had cheated or not. Data collection consisted of semi-structured interviews, which were audio recorded. This data was then analyzed by Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Findings showed that mens reasons why other men cheat on their partners are related to emotional justifications rather than sexual ones. Moreover most of the opportunities presented were thought to be found at the workplace, with certain employment positions thought to lead more to unfaithful relationships. Certain social interactions were though to lead towards infidelity. Furthermore all the participants believe that certain personality types are more likely to get involved in extra-dyadic relationships. Some limitations need to be acknowledged in this study. Findings might have been different if I have not interviewed men who come from similar educational backgrounds, Future research might want to consider the perspective of men who cheated. Keyword: infidelity, males perspective, emotional dissatisfaction, opportunities Dedication I would like to dedicate this dissertation to all the people who supported me throughout this process, especially to my family who always believed in me. Acknowledgements I would like to express my utmost gratitude to my supervisor Ms. Mary Ann Borg Cunen for her support and guidance in the course of my research. I would also like to thank all the participants for sharing their ideas and beliefs with me. Finally, my special gratitude goes to my family and my boyfriend for their love and support. Contents Abstract 3 Dedication 4 Acknowledgements 5 Chapter 1 8 Introduction 8 Rationale for the study 8 Motivation for the study 8 Background to the study 9 Objectives of the Study and Research Question 9 Chapters Overview 10 Chapter 2 11 Literature Review 11 Biological Perspective 11 Evolutionary Perspective 12 Social and Cultural Context 13 Attachment Theory 14 Parental- investment model 16 Relationship Infidelity and Personality Traits 16 Motivations for Infidelity 17 Dissatisfaction with Primary Relationship 18 Ego Bolstering 18 Education 19 Religious Affiliation 19 Types of Affairs 20 Gender Differences and Attitudes 21 Types of Infidelity 22 Conclusion 23 Chapter 3 24 Methodology 24 Research Design 24 Sample 25 Data Collection 25 Procedure 25 Research Instruments 26 Data Analysis 26 Ethical Considerations 27 Reliability and Validity 28 Conclusion 28 Chapter 4 29 Results and Discussion 29 Primary Relationship Dissatisfaction 29 Opportunity and Personality 32 Social interactions 36 Conclusion on the research findings 38 Chapter 5 40 Conclusion 40 Implications of the Research 40 Limitations of the study 41 Recommendations for Future Research 41 Conclusion 42 References 43 Appendix A 51 Appendix B 52 Appendix C 53 Mistoqsijiet 54 Appendix D 55 Appendix E 56 Appendix F 61 Chapter 1 Introduction Infidelity is defined as a severe interpersonal transgression in which one or both of the partners engage in extra dyadic relationship, going against the rules of monogamy and exclusivity (Drigotas, Safstrom, Gentillia, 1999). Researchers on infidelity identify two types of betrayal sexual or emotional. Sexual infidelity refers to the act of sexual activity with someone else other than ones partner, while emotional infidelity involves developing an emotional connection with another person apart from the committed partner (Wilson et al., 2011). Rationale for the study Research has been carried out to shed light on the motivations that lead men to extra dyadic relationships. A number of factors have been found, mainly depending on the relationship type and on factors related to the individual (Treas Giesen, 2000) However, other than the wish for sexual intercourse, I have not found a complete presentation of the reasons that lead men to infidelity. Given the lack of research about infidelity from a males point of view, I am interested in conducting this study to understand better a males perspective on the reasons that lead other men to cheat. Moreover, most of the past research has been carried out quantitatively, while I would like to obtain in-depth perspective through qualitative research. Motivation for the study The reason for choosing this research topic stems from a personal interest, as a close friend of mine has been cheated over by her husband. I became curious about the reasons that men give for their infidelity. I used to believe that men cheat mainly to satisfy their sexual desires. Thus, in view of this, I decided to research this topic further in order to understand a mans perspective about infidelity. Background to the study Infidelity is one of the most cited reasons for divorce. It is also the most damaging to the individual, since it may cause emotional distress (Wilson et al., 2011). The betrayed person may suffer harmful consequence, these affecting him both on a personal and relationship level (Boekhout, Hendrick Hendrick, 1999). Brown (1991) states that infidelity has always existed and will continue to exist. Even though the majority of couples disapprove of extramarital relationships, statistics indicate that there is a high percentage of married couples who engage in unfaithful relationships (20% to 40%) (Peluso Spina, 2008). Moreover, according to Brown (1991), affairs have little to do with sex. They are about fear and disappointment, anger and emptiness, they are also about the hope for love and acceptance(p.13). Past researchers have related infidelity exclusively to extramarital sexual intercourse, but through the research available today other acts of betrayal are being considered, like intimate emotional infidelity, online infidelity and secret relationships (Zola, 2007). Objectives of the Study and Research Question I am interested in researching males ideas and beliefs regarding infidelity, with particular emphasis on the perceived perception of what are the reasons that men give for other mens infidelity. Using data collected through opportunistic sampling, my study focuses on males who are in a committed relationship and who presumably have never cheated, even though they were never asked if they ever cheated, and examine the reasons why they think other men cheat. During the interviews an in-depth understanding of mens infidelity and the causes leading to it were explained. The following research question will be addressed: What are the perceived reasons men give for other mens infidelity? Chapters Overview The aim of this chapter was to present a brief overview on the literature available on the topic as well as to provide an outline of the rationale for choosing this topic, the objectives and the research question of this study. Chapter 2 will present the respective literature about infidelity, in particular that concerning male infidelity. Chapter 3 will provide a detailed explanation about the methodology used for this study. Chapter 4 will provide the results of this study, comparing them to the literature from previous research. In the final chapter I will present the studys limitations, its implications and will also make some recommendations for future research. Chapter 2 Literature Review This chapter assesses the theoretical perspectives behind the motivations that lead men towards unfaithful behaviour. It is fundamental to have an appropriate definition of what infidelity means, as it gives a better understanding about the reasons behind infidelity. Infidelity used to be defined as extramarital sexual involvement, but nowadays the meaning is more inclusive. A more appropriate definition of infidelity proposed by Zola (2007) is (1) an act of an emotional and/or physical betrayal characterized by behaviour that is not sanctioned by the other partner; and (2) that has contributed to considerable, on-going, emotional anguish in the non-offending partner (p.26). Biological Perspective Research has been carried out to see whether any correlation between an individuals genetic component and infidelity exists. It was found that men with relatively high levels of testosterone show prolonged interest in sexual activity outside their current committed relationship, also tending to have a greater number of sex partners and a higher number of extra-marital affairs (OConnor, Daniel, Feinberg, 2011, p. 65). With respect to women, levels of testosterone during the menstrual cycle indicate an increased possibility in engaging in infidelity (Welling et al., 2007 as cited in OConnor et al.). Moreover, Garcia et al. (2010) found that individuals with genetic variation of the dopamine D4, called 7R +, were more prone to infidelity or promiscuity. In their research, 50% of the participants with 7R + reported being unfaithful when compared with 22% of participants who did not exhibit this genetic variation. Garcia further notes that his findings are not cause-effect related, since people without these genetic variations can also commit infidelity. In another study conducted by Cherkas, Oelsner, Mak, Valdes Spector (2004) on female twins about the correlation between genetic influence and infidelity, demonstrated that heritability in sexual infidelity exists (41%). Even though biological factors were proven to be relatively correlative with infidelity, social and culture influences should still not be ignored as they influence attitudes towards infidelity (Cherkas et al.). Evolutionary Perspective Evolutionary theorists have argued that infidelity has always existed in one form or another among human couples and research has addressed a growing number of issues surrounding this phenomenon (Fricker, 2006). For both females and males, reproduction and sexuality are the driving force for mate selection and relationship formation, most of the time acting unconsciously within the person (Hill, 2008). According to Trivers, (1972, as cited in Buss, 1995), females have evolved to be more selective in their choice of mating partners since they are the ones who invest more in their offspring, so they exert greater selection pressure. In fact women are less likely to sleep around (Buss, 1998) while males evolve to be more competitive with same sex members to protect themselves from cuckoldry  [1]  costs (Kuhle, Smedley Schmitt, 2009). Women are oriented towards long-term relationships while men prefer short-term relationships, showing less selection strictness (Buss Schmit, 1993). This lack of austerity allows men to have a wider range of sexual partners, therefore having higher availability alternatives. In a study conducted by Stone, Shackelford and Busss (2007), results demonstrated that when there are more females in a society, males lower their standard to further their offspring. In fact, according to evolutionary theory, males are more likely to cheat for reproductive success while woman cheat to find a superior mate. Furthermore, Drigotas and Barta (2001) suggest that if one of the partners does not perceive the relationship as rewarding, they tend to leave the dyad and move elsewhere. Mating strategies are time consuming, so after successfully attracting a mate, males adopt different retaining strategies (Kuhle et al., 2009). Since males cannot be sure of their paternity (Buss 2000 as cited in Sabini Silver 2005), they might be afraid to raise a child who is not biologically theirs (Hughes, Harrison Gallup, 2004) so males might be endowed by genes that make them react to sexual infidelity. Moreover, because maternity is always certain, females do not perceive sexual infidelity as a threat because they are not going to invest in an offspring which is not biologically theirs. It is the emotional engagement with another female which however triggers jealousy in women, as they fear abandonment (Sabini Silver). Social and Cultural Context According to Brown (1991) an increase in affairs has to do with moral breakdowns in our society (p.9). Others blame aspects like opportunity, physical separation (Glass Wight, 1992), sexual liberalization and the changes that came along with womens emancipation. Human behaviour is shaped through socio-cultural factors, hence to understand better the reasons behind infidelity one should also consider outside influences (Brown). With the economic changes that have taken place in recent decades, families have faced drastic changes in their daily lives. Couples used to work together on farms, but today both work long hours having little time for each other (Brown, 1991). Social context gives more opportunity to engage in infidelity. The workplace gives the possibility to get closer to someone else (Treas Giesen, 2000; Wiggins Lederer, 1984). Glass states that 46% of unfaithful wives and 62% of unfaithful husbands who visited her clinic had an affair with someone who they met at work (Brown). Moreover jobs that require personal contact put the person more at risk of infidelity (Treas Giesen). Biosocial theory is an alternative to the evolutionary theory proposed by Wood and Eagly (2002) to explain infidelity. Women and men engage in different behaviours according to the social roles associated with their gender. These roles are attributed to physical differences. Costs and benefits from choosing a particular mate depend on social roles, and will be socially transmitted between cultures. Since males are unable to reproduce this gives them greater power over women. According to Charles, (2002 as cited in Agius, 2010), monogamous relationships are unhealthy because they block the natural instinct of humans (p. 16). Schmookler Bursiks (2007) research concluded that males perceive monogamy as a sacrifice, whereas females perceive it as relationship enhancing. Nowadays a lot of couples are opting for cohabitation instead of marriage, but according to Dolcini et al. (1993 as cited in Treas Giesen, 2000) the prevalence of infidelity amongst cohabiting couples is higher than in marriages since they invest less in their union and face less costs when having to leave the relationship. Attachment Theory Attachment theory is another study of evolutionary theory to explain emotions children experience when separated from their primary caregiver (Donovan, 2010; Hill, 2008). Bowlby, found that the first few years of a parent-child relationship are decisive in developing emotional attachment, this resulting from a secure and comfort state with their caregivers. Through the emotional attachment formed with their caregivers, children develop what Ainsworth and colleagues (1978, as cited in Hill) called internal working models that will help them to understand relationships and react to them emotionally throughout life (p. 285). Furthermore, the attachment style with the caregiver will determine an individuals personality component and will influence also future relationships (Donovan). Hazan and Shaver (1987) focused on the parent-child relationship and the effect on romantic and sexual relationships during adolescence and adulthood. They found that those who experienced a secure attachment with their parents tend to experience satisfying committed relationships which are stable and durable. On the other hand, those with an anxious-ambivalent personality style enter romantic relationships more quickly but are also prone to ending them quickly. Individuals who experienced an avoidant attachment style are more likely to avoid any involvement in a romantic relationship. Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991, as cited in Hill 2008) proposed a fourth attachment style, dismissing attachment and this with reference to individuals who prefer to be more independent and not having to rely on others. According to the adult attachment theory, the type of emotional bond experienced with the caregiver is expected to occur when it comes to emotional bonding between adults (Fricker, 2006). Bogaert and Sadavas (2002, as cited in Hill, 2008)) study on young adults found that individuals who score higher on anxious attachment are more likely to engage in infidelity (especially for women). Similarly, in Allen et al. (2008) study, men with dismissive attachment styles and women with preoccupied attachment style tend to have a large number of partners outside their primary relationship. Moreover, Blow and Hartnett (2005) found that women who have preoccupied attachment style and men who have a fearful attachment style are more likely to cheat. Parental- investment model According to Trivers (1972, as cited in Buss, 1998): Parental investment can be defined as any time, energy, or, effort expended to aid the survival and reproduction of one offspring at the expense of other forms of investment, such as effort devoted to intrasexual competition. (p. 21) Since parental investment can be costly, females need to be selective with whom to engage sexually. Sex differences in reproduction leads to different fitness strategies. For males, mating with different women puts them at a reproduction advantage to safeguard their genes and pass them on to the next generation. On the other hand, women are limited in reproduction, hence they need to protect themselves and their offspring by choosing a mate with high genetic qualities (Hughes et al., 2004). In fact, women are more attracted to males who possess good genes and who are caring and ready to commit resources for their offspring (Hill, 2008). Women also tend to give greater importance to mates who are economically stable and socially dominant. Conversely, men prefer younger, healthy, and more physically attractive women (Yeniceri Kokdemir, 2006). As a matter of fact, males mostly value the waist-to-hip ratio and the body mass index, as these are associated with youthfulness and attractive women, thought to be indicators of health and capacity to reproduce (Hill, p.362). In fact women are more intimidated by opponents who are more physically attractive, while men are more threatened by rivals who have strong social status and stability (Hill). Relationship Infidelity and Personality Traits In a study carried out amongst fifty-two nations, using the Big Five personality traits, a relationship is evident between different personality traits and relationship infidelity (Schmitt, 2004). Four traits appear to be related to sexual behaviour; extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and neuroticism. Exhibiting low levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness is associated with infidelity and impulsive sensation- seeking (Orzeck Lung, 2005; Schmitt). Barta and Kiene (2005; as cited in Blow Kelley, 2005; Wilson et al., 2011), found that attitudes toward uncommitted sexual relationships are good predictors of infidelity, such that people who have a favourable attitude towards infidelity are more likely to cheat. Additionally, those who report being unfaithful in romantic relationships tend to be uncooperative and lack trust (i.e. disagreeable), disorganized and unreliable (i.e. unconscientiously) which is likely to lead to infidelity during the first four years of marriage (Orzeck Lung, 2005; Schmitt, 2004). On the other hand, a Machiavellian personality, psychoticism and psychopathy which are rooted in low agreeableness and low conscientiousness are strong predictors of high sensation seeking (Schmitt). Eysenck (1976, as cited in Schmitt, 2004) further found that extroverts tend to have multiple partners, are more sexually active and engage in sexual intercourse at a young age. They are more likely to be unfaithful because of high libido or due to the need to raise their habitually low levels of cortical arousal to a more comfortable level (p. 303) in order to overcome boredom (Orzeck Lung, 2005). Since they are always in need of new stimulation, they lack commitment investment (Drigotas et al., 1999). According to Buss and Shackelford (1997 as cited in Orzeck Lung, 2005) couples who have similar personalities are more likely to be satisfied with their relationship, while dissimilar personality characteristics could decrease satisfaction, leading to infidelity. Motivations for Infidelity Many researchers have examined the reasons for extra relationship involvements. According to Glass and Wright (1992 as cited in Boekhout et al., 1999), there are four classes of infidelity justifications, these being sexual, emotional, love (which entails falling in love and receiving attention), and extrinsic motivations. Even though men and women give similar justifications for their betrayal, research has shown that some sex differences do exist. For women, relationship dissatisfaction is a higher contributor to infidelity, while for men factors like sexual incompatibility and lack of communication lead to infidelity (Roscoe, Cavanaugh, Kennedy, 1988). Dissatisfaction with Primary Relationship People in committed relationships expect certain needs to be fulfilled by their partners (Boekhout et al., 1999). When these needs are lacking, they seek them outside the primary relationship. The investment theory (Rusbult, 1983) explains that cheaters perceive themselves as being more pleasing, exploited and taken advantage of, so they would look for appreciation in extra relationship involvement. Conversely, when they feel that their needs are being met they tend to be faithful (Orzech Lung, 2005). Research shows that relationship dissatisfaction is a high contributor to infidelity (Blow Kelley, 2005; Brown, 1991; Glass Wright, 1985). Furthermore, dissatisfaction with a primary relationship increases the desire for extramarital relationships, whereas Cuber and Haroff (1965, as cited in Glass Wright, 1977) state that affairs are not exclusive to bad marriages but may also occur in good marriages. Among those that engage in extramarital sex, women tend to be more dissatisfied with their relationship than men (Blow Kelley, 2005; Brown, 1991). For women, the primary motivator to extramarital sex is emotional dissatisfaction (Glass Wright, 1985) while for men it is related to sexual dissatisfaction (Brown). Poor communication and unresolved marital problems are also related to infidelity (Brown). Ego Bolstering Pittman (1989 as cited in Brown, 1991) assigns complete responsibility for an affair to the infidel and views the partner as a victim (p.21). Men are likely to commit extramarital sex due to low levels of self-esteem, hence exhibiting feelings of insecurity. In fact, Eaves and Robertson- Smith (2004) found that the lower a mans self- esteem is, the most likely he will be unfaithful. In a relationship where men perceive their masculinity as being threatened, they tend to engage in an affair (Chircop, 2008). Moreover anger and revenge could be a motivator leading to unfaithful relationships. In this case, the choice to hurt back a partner would be a conscious one (Cachia, 2007). Education Studies in evaluating whether a correlation between education and infidelity exist or not vary. Treas and Giesen (2000) acknowledge that individuals who are highly educated tend to be more permissive towards sexual values and infidelities (Blow Hartnett, 2005). In a study conducted by Atkins et al. (2001 as cited in Blow Hartnett) graduate participants were 1.75 times higher to engage in extramarital relationships than those with a lower education. These researchers also state that this finding is significant amongst individuals who are divorced. Religious Affiliation The great influence of Puritan values on American and later on European cultures contributed to less tolerance towards sexual betrayal as it came to be viewed as morally unacceptable (Scheinkman, 2005, as cited in Zola, 2007). Even though some researchers like Blumstein Schwartz, (1983, as cited in Blow Hartnett, 2005) state that there is no correlation between attendance at religious services and infidelity, other studies report that attendance at religious services leads to lower rates of infidelity (Treas Giesen, 2000). Liu (2000) suggests that it might be the case that couples who attend religious services might be exposed more to the condemning messages of extramarital affairs. Moreover, their social network might be tighter, hence allowing them more to adhere to social norms (Blow Hartnett). In a study conducted by Amato and Previti (2003, as cited in Allen et al., 2008), religiosity played a great role in whether to engage in infidelity or not. In fact higher religiosity c an inhibit infidelity due to mechanisms such as less permissiveness attitudes (p. 244). In another study, Azzopardi (2011) found that couples who practice religion are more likely to be faithful, while low religiosity is correlated with infidelity. Amongst the Maltese society, Catholicism is highly viewed and great respect for the doctrines stance of low-tolerance towards infidelity still exists. However, things have changed since Tabones study, which dates back to 1987, where the majority of his sample participants declared that they would not be unfaithful because it is against Gods Commandments (as cited in Cachia, 2007, p.6). More recently, Abela, (2000) has stated that in todays society, the Christian religion has little influence on affairs. Even though religion might not affect infidelity, still it can prevent infidelity to some extent. Types of Affairs Brown (1991) recognizes that different types of affairs exist; in fact she identifies five. The conflict avoidance affair takes place when individuals are afraid of speaking up when they do not agree with their partner because they want to be seen as good persons and fear being abandoned. Others seek an affair because they are afraid of getting intimate with someone. This type of affair is known as the intimacy avoidance affair. Sexual addiction affairs exist among men who indulge themselves in sexual activity to numb inner pain. In the case of the split self affair, both the spouse and the adulterer put the needs of others in front of theirs. Contrary to the sexual addict affair, here it is the marriage that feels empty and not the individual. Usually the affair is passionate, and serious. The last type of affair is the exist affair. Brown, describes these individuals as conflict avoiders at heart (p.41). Both partners are aware that their marriage has finished, but still the adulte rer justifies his action to leave the marriage for the affair instead. Gender Differences and Attitudes A lot of research has been carried out to identify the incidence rate of affairs between males and females. However a simple conclusion cannot be reached because it depends on age, primary relationship type and the type of extra dyadic relationship (Hill, 2008). Even though the majority of married couples expect a monogamous relationship and condemn extra dyadic relationships (Allen et al., 2008), still between 20% to 40% of all couples at one point in their life, engage in infidelity (Peluso Spina, 2008). Several authors have concluded that men engage more in unfaithful relationships and are more permissive about extra-dyadic sex than women (Hill, 2008; Treas Giesen, 2000). However, Margie Scarf (1987 as cited in Brown 1991) points out that 55% of married men and 45% of married women engage in unfaithful relationships. Due to the increasing number of women who work, opportunity to engage in infidelity is increasing as well (Larson, 1988 as cited by Brown). Besides, Atwater (1982, as cited in Brown) explains that there is a higher rate in affair participation amongst young women than men. Larson (1988 as cited in Brown) still recognizes that there is a gender difference when it comes to affairs because females consider infidelity to be more serious than males. In a local context, Cachia (2007) carried out a study to highlight both differences and similarities in infidelity amongst males and females. Results revealed that both sexes considered infidelity to be wrong yet still engaged in it. Another study was conducted by Agius (2010) to investigate if there are any sex differences when it comes to infidelity. Even in this study, results showed no significant difference between genders when it comes to being unfaithful. Glass and Wright (1977) recognised that there is a relation between attitudes toward infidelity and behaviour, especially for men. More favourable attitudes towards infidelity are associated with greater predictions towards the likelihood of engaging in sexual infidelity (Treas Giesen, 2000; Wilson et al., 2011). Blow Hartnett (2005) assert that attitudes toward infidelity may also depend on prior sexual experience. Premarital sexual experiences are correlated with extramarital affairs; in fact, Atwater (1982 as cited in Brown 1991) states that the more experience an individual has the greatest the likelihood of him being unfaithful. Types of Infidelity An affair can be sexual, emotional or both (Brown, 1991). Sexual infidelity refers to sexual activity with someone else outside the primary relationship while emotional infidelity refers to the attention and romantic love channelled towards someone else besides the long-term partner (Shackelford, LeBlanc Drass, 2000). Men perceive sexual infidelity as being more distressful and unacceptable, whereas women are more upset when it comes to emotional infidelity. This difference is explained by the evolutionary perspective model because it reflects the challenges our ancestors faced in reproduction (Treger Sprecher, 2011). Buss and his colleagues (1992, as cited in Boekhout et al., 1999) found that 60% of men will be more distressed with sexual infidelity, whereas 83% of women are more distressed with emotional infidelity. Women believe that men engage in sexual activity without any emotional attachment, so when they fall in love women perceive this type of affair as more distressful. On the other hand, men know that women may fall in love without engaging in sex and that they will have sex only with the one they love, so they perceive sexual infidelity as more distressful (Treger Sprecher). Men mostly view extra dyadic relationships as having no consequences on committed relationships since they are more like

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Visual Diagnosis Of Melanomas Health And Social Care Essay

Amelanotic melanoma is a type of skin malignant neoplastic disease in which the cells do non do melanin. They can be pink, ruddy, violet or of normal tegument colour, therefore hard to acknowledge. It has an asymmetrical form, and an irregular faintly pigmented boundary line. Their untypical visual aspect leads to detain in diagnosing, the forecast is bad. Recurrence rate is high. Figure: 3.11. Amelanotic melanoma on Canis familiaris ‘s toe3.12.10 Soft-tissue melanomaClear-cell sarcoma ( once known as malignant melanoma of the soft parts ) is a rare signifier of malignant neoplastic disease called sarcoma. It is known to happen chiefly in the soft tissues and corium. Rare signifiers were thought to happen in the GI piece of land before they were discovered to be different and redesignated as GNET. The return for such sort of melanoma is common. Clear cell sarcoma of the soft tissues in grownups is non related to the paediatric tumour known as clear cell sarcoma of the kidney. Under a microscope these tumours show some similarities to traditional tegument melanomas, and are characterized by solid nests and fascicules of tumour cells with clear cytol and outstanding nucleole. The clear cell sarcoma has a unvarying and typical morphological form which serves to separate it from other types of sarcoma.3.13 Diagnosis:Ocular diagnosing of melanomas is still the most common method employed by wellness professionals. Gram molecules that are irregular in colour or form are frequently treated as campaigners of melanoma. The diagnosing of melanoma requires experience, as early phases may look indistinguishable to harmless moles or non hold any colour at all. Peoples with a personal or household history of skin malignant neoplastic disease or of dysplastic nevus syndrome ( multiple untypical moles ) should see a skin doctor at least one time a twelvemonth to be certain they are non developing melanoma. There is no blood trial for observing melanomas. To observe melanomas ( and increase survival rates ) , it is recommended to larn what they look like ( see â€Å" ABCDE † mnemonic below ) , to be cognizant of moles and look into for alterations ( form, size, colour, rubing or shed blooding ) and to demo any leery moles to a physician with an involvement and accomplishments in skin malignance. A popular method for retrieving the marks and symptoms of melanoma is the mnemotechnic â€Å" ABCDE † : Asymmetrical tegument lesion. Boundary line of the lesion is irregular. Color: melanomas normally have multiple colourss. Diameter: moles greater than 6A millimeters are more likely to be melanomas than smaller moles. Enlarging: Enlarging or germinating A failing in this system is the diameter. Many melanomas present themselves as lesions smaller than 6A millimeter in diameter ; and all melanomas were malignant on twenty-four hours 1 of growing, which is simply a point. An sharp doctor will analyze all unnatural moles, including 1s less than 6A millimeter in diameter. Seborrheic Keratosis may run into some or all of the ABCD standards, and can take to false dismaies among laypeople and sometimes even doctors. An experient physician can by and large separate seborrheic keratosis from melanoma upon scrutiny, or with dermoscopy. Some advocate the system â€Å" ABCDE † , with E for development. Certainly moles that alteration and germinate will be a concern. Alternatively, some refer to E as lift. Elevation can assist place a melanoma, but deficiency of lift does non intend that the lesion is non a melanoma. Most melanomas are detected in the really early phase, or unmoved phase, before they become elevated. By the clip lift is seeable, they may hold progressed to the more unsafe invasive phase. Nodular melanomas do non carry through these standards, holding their ain mnemonic, â€Å" EFG † : Elevated: the lesion is raised above the environing tegument. Firm: the nodule is solid to the touch. Turning: the nodule is increasing in size. A recent and fresh method of melanoma sensing is the â€Å" ugly duckling mark † . It is simple, easy to learn, and extremely effectual in observing melanoma. Simply, correlativity of common features of a individual ‘s skin lesion is made. Lesions which greatly deviate from the common features are labeled as an â€Å" Ugly Duckling † , and further professional test is required. The â€Å" Small Red Riding Hood † mark suggests that persons with just tegument and light-colored hair might hold difficult-to-diagnose amelanotic melanomas. Extra attention and cautiousness should be rendered when analyzing such persons, as they might hold multiple melanomas and badly dysplastic birthmark. A dermatoscope must be used to observe â€Å" ugly ducklings † , as many melanomas in these persons resemble non-melanomas or are considered to be â€Å" wolves in sheep vesture † . [ 28 ] These fair-skinned persons frequently have lightly pigmented or amelanotic me lanomas which will non show easy-to-observe colour alterations and fluctuation in colourss. The boundary lines of these amelanotic melanomas are frequently indistinct, doing ocular designation without a dermatoscope really hard. Amelanotic melanomas and melanomas arising in fair-skinned persons ( see the â€Å" Small Red Riding Hood † mark ) are really hard to observe, as they fail to demo many of the features in the ABCD regulation, interrupt the â€Å" Ugly Duckling † mark, and are really hard to separate from acne scarring, insect bites, dermatofibromas, or freckles. Following a ocular scrutiny and a dermatoscopic test, or in vivo diagnostic tools such as a confocal microscope, the physician may biopsy the leery mole. A tegument biopsy performed under local anaesthesia is frequently required to help in doing or corroborating the diagnosing and in specifying the badness of the melanoma. If the mole is malignant, the mole and an country around it need deletion. Egg-shaped excisional biopsies may take the tumour, followed by histological analysis and Breslow marking. Punch biopsies are contraindicated in suspected melanomas, for fright of seeding tumour cells and rushing the spread of the malignant cells. Entire organic structure picture taking, which involves photographic certification of every bit much organic structure surface as possible, is frequently used during followup of bad patients. The technique has been reported to enable early sensing and provides a cost-efficient attack ( being possible with the usage of any digital camera ) , but its efficaciousness has been questioned due to its inability to observe macroscopic alterations. The diagnosing method should be used in concurrence with ( and non as a replacing for ) dermoscopic imagination, with a combination of both methods looking to give highly high rates of sensing.3.14 Dermatoscopy:Dermatoscopy ( dermoscopy or epiluminescence microscopy ) is the scrutiny of skin lesions with a dermatoscope. This traditionally consists of a magnifier ( typically x10 ) , a non-polarised visible radiation beginning, a crystalline home base and a liquid medium between the instrument and the tegument, and allows review of skin lesions unobs tructed by skin surface contemplations. Modern dermatoscopes dispense with the usage of liquid medium and alternatively usage polarised visible radiation to call off out skin surface contemplations. When the images or picture cartridge holders are digitally captured or processed, the instrument can be referred to as a â€Å" digital epiluminescence dermatoscope † .3.15 Advantages of dermatographyWith physicians who are experts in the specific field of dermoscopy, the diagnostic truth for melanoma is significantly better than for those skin doctors who do non hold any specialised preparation in Dermatoscopy. Thus, with specializers trained in dermoscopy, there is considerable betterment in the sensitiveness ( sensing of melanomas ) every bit good as specificity ( per centum of non-melanomas right diagnosed as benign ) , compared with bare oculus scrutiny. The truth by Dermatoscopy was increased up to 20 % in the instance of sensitiveness and up to 10 % in the instance of speci ficity, compared with bare oculus scrutiny. By utilizing dermatoscopy the specificity is thereby increased, cut downing the frequence of unneeded surgical deletions of benign lesions.3.16 Application of dermatoscopyThe typical application of dermatoscopy is early sensing of melanoma. Digital dermatoscopy ( video dermatoscopy ) is used for supervising skin lesions leery of melanoma. Digital dermatoscopy images are stored and compared to images obtained during the patient ‘s following visit. Leery alterations in such a lesion are an indicant for deletion. Skin lesions, which appear unchanged over clip, are considered benign. Common systems for digital dermoscopy are Fotofinder, Molemax or Easyscan. Aid in the diagnosing of tegument tumours – such as basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, cylindromas, dermatofibromas, angiomas, seborrheic keratosis and many other common tegument tumours have classical dermatoscopic findings. Aid in the diagnosing of itchs and pubic louse. By staining the tegument with India ink, a dermatoscope can assist place the location of the touch in the tunnel, easing scraping of the scabetic tunnel. By amplifying pubic louse, it allows for rapid diagnosing of the hard to see little insects. Aid in the diagnosing of warts. By leting a doctor to visualise the construction of a wart, to separate it from maize, callouses, injury, or foreign organic structures. By analyzing warts at late phases of intervention, to guarantee that therapy is non stopped prematurely due to hard to visualise wart constructions. Aid in the diagnosing of fungous infections. To distinguish â€Å" black point † ringworm, or ringworm capitis ( fungous scalp infection ) from alopecia areata. Aid in the diagnosing of hair and scalp diseases, such as alopecia areata, female androgenic alopecia, monilethrix, Netherton syndrome and woolly hair syndrome. Dermoscopy of hair and scalp is called trichoscopy.3.17 Computer Added Diagnosis for early sensing of Skin CancerMelanoma is the most deathly assortment of skin malignant neoplastic disease. Although less common than other tegument malignant neoplastic diseases, it is responsible for the bulk of skin malignant neoplastic disease related deceases globally. Most instances are curable if detected early and several standardised testing techniques have been developed to better the early sensing rate. Such testing techniques have proven utile in clinical scenes for testing persons with a high hazard for melanoma, but there is considerable argument on their public-service corporation among big populations due to the high work load on skin doctors and the subjectiveness in the reading of the showing. In add-on to deducing a set of computing machine vision algorithms to automatize popular tegument ego scrutiny techniques, this undertaking developed a nomadic phone application that provides a pre-screening tool for persons in the general population to assist measure their hazard. No computing machine application can supply a concrete diagnosing, but it can assist inform the person and raise the general consciousness of this unsafe disease. Melanoma develops in the melanocyte tegument cells responsible for bring forthing the pigment melanin which gives the tegument, hair, and eyes their colourss. Early phases of the malignant neoplastic disease present themselves as irregular tegument lesions. Detection techniques for early phase melanoma use the morphological features of such irregular tegument lesions to sort hazard degrees.A. Skin-Self Evaluations utilizing the ABCDE methodSurveies have shown that self-performed skin scrutinies can greatly better early sensing and survivability rates of melanoma [ 112 ] . The most constituted method for skin introspections to day of the month is the â€Å" ABCDE † promoted by the American Academy of Dermatology [ 113 ] . A elaborate tutorial for carry oning skin self-exams including illustration images for each characteristic is available in [ 113 ] . The â€Å" ABCDE † trial provides a widely accepted, standardised set of lesion characteristics to analyze. The characte ristics are designed for members of the general populace, but variableness in the reading of the characteristics weakens the overall public-service corporation of the trial [ 112 ] . Preprocessing Once a exaggerated image of a skin lesion is captured it is passed to a preprocessor. The preprocessor performs planetary image binarization via Otsu ‘s method [ 114 ] . Following binarization, a affiliated constituents analysis is performed and little part remotion for both positive and negative parts removes most of the image noise. 1 ) Asymmetry A lesion is considered potentially cancerous if â€Å" one half is unlike the other half. † This counsel is comparatively obscure, so techniques developed for dermatoscopy were used for inspiration. The dissymmetry mark computation is based on the symmetricalness map technique. Symmetry maps encode a step of a part ‘s symmetricalness, known as symmetricalness metric, comparative to a scope of axes of symmetricalness defined by angle. Lesion colour and texture comparings were used to encode symmetricalness. Normally the symmetricalness metric is a map of distance R from a part ‘s centre. To cipher the symmetricalness of an image section a symmetricalness map is created for the scope of symmetricalness axes go throughing through a part ‘s centre with angles runing from 0 to 180 grades. To deduce a scalar symmetricalness mark from the symmetricalness map, the planetary upper limit is used. The symmetricalness map technique is attractive because it is able to accomplish a grade of rotational invariability via the soap operator. However, ciphering symmetricalness maps with such a high declaration in angles is computationally expensive and colour and texture can change depending on the image ‘s lighting and focal point. Lighting and focal point are non traditionally major factors in dermatoscopy but they have a big impact in macro picture taking. 2 ) Boundary line The form and strength of a part ‘s boundary line are considered jointly when measuring hazard but the machine-controlled algorithm examines merely border strength. This is because the simple cleavage techniques used were a comparatively noisy step of a lesion ‘s boundary and the cleavage noise rapidly corrupts any boundary line form metric. However, border strength is comparatively easy to calculate. The strength gradient map can besides be computed utilizing a two-stage filter combination of Sobel and Gaussian meats. Once the image gradient map is computed, the gradient magnitude values at each pel along the lesion ‘s boundary line are summed and normalized by the boundary line ‘s size to cipher the mean gradient magnitude along the lesion ‘s boundary line. This mean gradient metric signifiers the boundary line strength hazard value. In general lesions with ill defined boundary lines. Proper pick of the Gaussian smoothing meat is of import given the comparative inaccuracy of the lesion cleavage. If excessively little a meat is used, the boundary line pels may non fall straight over pels with a high gradient magnitude. To cut down variableness, all lesion images are converted to grayscale before hiting. The standard divergence of the grayscale strength values of all the pels belonging to lesion parts has to be calculated. The standard divergence value is taken as the colour fluctuation hazard. B. Image Processing for Digital Dermatoscopy and Digital Macro Photography Epiluminescence Microscopy ( ELM ) , besides known as dermatoscopy, is a noninvasive technique for bettering the early sensing of skin malignant neoplastic disease [ 115 ] . In dermatoscopy, a set of polarized light filters or oil submergence render selected cuticular beds transparent and macro lenses magnify little characteristics non seeable to the bare oculus. Most dermatoscopes besides include characteristics to command illuming and focal conditions. Dermatoscopy is often combined with digital imaging engineering and a big organic structure of research is devoted to developing computerized processing techniques runing on the digital images produced. An version of the â€Å" ABCDE † method for skin introspections to dermatoscopic images was foremost presented in 1994 [ 116 ] .3.17.1 Image Acquisition TechniquesThe first measure in adept systems used for skin review involves the acquisition of the tissue digital image. The chief techniques used for this intent are the Epilum inence microscopy ( ELM, or dermoscopy ) , transmittal negatron microscopy ( TEM ) , and the image acquisition utilizing still or video cameras. ELM is capable of supplying a more elaborate review of the surface of pigmented tegument lesions and renders the epidermis translucent, doing many cuticular characteristics become seeable. TEM, on the other manus, can uncover the typical construction of organisation of elastic webs in the corium, and therefore, is largely used for analyzing growing and suppression of melanoma through its liposomes [ 117 ] .Arecently introduced method of ELM imagination is side-transillumination ( transillumination ) . In this attack, visible radiation is directed from a pealing around the fringe of a lesion toward its centre at an angle of 45a- ¦ , organizing a practical visible radiation beginning at a focal point about 1 centimeters below the surface of the tegument, therefore doing the surface and subsurface of the skin translucent. The chief advantage of transillumination is its sensitiveness to imaging increased blood flow and vascularisation and besides to sing the subsurface pigmentation in a birthmark. This technique is used by a paradigm device, called Nevoscope, which can bring forth images that have variable sum of transillumination and cross-polarized surface light [ 118 ] , [ 119 ] . The usage of commercially available photographic cameras is besides rather common in skin lesion review systems, peculiarly for telemedicine intents [ 120 ] , [ 121 ] .However, the hapless declaration in really little tegument lesions, i.e. , lesions with diameter of less than 0.5 centimeter, and the variable light conditions are non easy handled, and hence, high-resolution devices with low-distortion lenses have to be used. In add-on, the demand for changeless image colourss ( necessary for image duplicability ) remains unsated, as it requires existent clip, automated colour standardization of the camera, i.e. , accommoda tions and corrections to run within the dynamic scope of the camera and ever mensurate the same colour regardless of the lighting conditions. The job can be addressed by utilizing picture cameras [ 122 ] that are parameterizable online and can be controlled through package ( SW ) [ 123 ] , [ 124 ] . In add-on to the latter, improper sum of submergence oil or misalignment of the picture Fieldss in the captured picture frame, due to camera motion, can do either loss or quality debasement of the skin image. Acquisition clip mistake sensing techniques has to be developed harmonizing to [ 124 ] and it is done merely in an attempt to get the better of such issues. Computed imaging ( CT ) images have besides been used [ 125 ] in order to observe melanomas and track both advancement of the disease and response to intervention. Table: 3.2 Image Acquisition Methods Along With the Respective Detection Goals Image Acquisition Technique Detection Goal Video RGB Camera Tumor, Crust, hair, graduated table, glistening ulcer of skin lesions, skin erythema, Burn scars, Melanoma Recognition Tissue Microscopy Melanoma Recognition Still CCD Camera Wound Mending Ultraviolet light Melanoma Recognition Epiluminescence Microscopy ( ELM ) Melanoma Recognition Video microscopy Melanoma Recognition Multi frequence Electrical Electric resistances Melanoma Recognition Raman Spectra Melanoma Recognition Side-or Epi-transllumination ( utilizing Novoscope ) Melanoma Recognition Positron emanation imaging ( PET ) using fluorodeoxyglucose ( FDG ) [ 126 ] has besides been proven to be a extremely sensitive and suited diagnostic method in the theatrical production of assorted tumors, including melanoma, complementing structural imagination. FDG consumption has been correlated with proliferation rate, and therefore the grade of malignance of a given tumour. MRI can besides be used for tumour word picture [ 127 ] . Such methods are utilized largely for analyzing the metastatic potency of a skin melanoma and for farther appraisal. Finally, alternate techniques such multifrequency electrical electric resistance [ 128 ] or Raman spectra [ 129 ] have been proposed as possible showing methods. The electrical electric resistance of a biological stuff reflects fleeting physical belongingss of the tissue. Raman spectra are obtained by indicating a optical maser beam at a skin lesion sample. The optical maser beam excites molecules in the sample, and a scattering conseque nce is observed. These frequence displacements are maps of the type of molecules in the sample ; therefore, the Raman spectra clasp utile information on the molecular construction of the sample. Table I summarizes the most common image acquisition techniques found in literature along with the several sensing ends.3.17.2 Features for the Classification of Skin LesionsSimilarly to the traditional ocular diagnosing process, the computer-based systems look for characteristics and unite them to qualify the lesion as malignant melanoma, dysplastic birthmark, or common birthmark. The characteristics employed have to be mensurable and of high sensitiveness, i.e. , high correlativity of the characteristic with skin malignant neoplastic disease and high chance of true positive response. Furthermore, the characteristics should hold high specificity, i.e. , high chance of true negative response. Although in the typical categorization paradigm both factors are considered of import ( a trade-off expressed by maximising the country under the receiving system runing characteristic ( ROC ) curve ) , in the instance of malignant melanoma sensing, the suppression of false negatives ( i.e. , addition of true positives ) is evidently more of import. In the conventional process, the undermentioned diagnosing methods are chiefly used [ 130 ] : 1 ) ABCD regulation of dermoscopy ; 2 ) Pattern analysis ; 3 ) Menzies method ; 4 ) seven-point checklist ; and 5 ) Texture analysis. The characteristics used for each of these methods are presented in the followers. ABCD Rule: The ABCD regulation investigates the dissymmetry ( A ) , boundary line ( B ) , colour ( C ) , and differential constructions ( D ) of the lesion and defines the footing for a diagnosing by a skin doctor. To cipher the ABCD mark, the ‘Asymmetry, Border, Colors, and Dermoscopic constructions ‘ standards are assessed semi quantitatively. Each of the standards is so multiplied by a given weight factor to give a entire dermoscopy mark ( TDS ) . TDS values less than 4.75 indicate a benign melanocytic lesion, values between 4.8 and 5.45 indicate a leery lesion, and values of 5.45 or greater are extremely implicative of melanoma.A AsymmetryTo measure dissymmetry, the melanocytic lesion is bisected by two 90 ° axes that were positioned to bring forth the lowest possible dissymmetry mark. If both axes dermocopically show asymmetric contours with respect toA form, colourss and/or dermoscopic constructions, the dissymmetry mark is 2.A If there is dissymmetry on one axis merely, the mark is 1. If dissymmetry is absent with respect to both axes the mark is 0.A Boundary lineThe lesion is divided into eighths, and the pigment form is assessed. Within eachA one-eighth section, a crisp, disconnected cut-off of pigment form at the fringe receivesA a mark 1. In contrast, a gradual, indistinct cut-off within the section receives a scoreA of 0. Therefore, the maximal boundary line mark is 8, and the minimal mark is 0.A ColorSix different colourss are counted in finding the colour mark: white, ruddy, light brown, A dark brown, blue-gray, and black. For each colour nowadays, add +1 to the score.A White should be counted merely if the country is lighter than the next skin.A The maximal colour mark is 6, and the minimal mark is 1.3.18 Dermoscopic constructionsEvaluation of dermoscopic constructions focuses on 5 structural characteristics: web, structureless ( or homogenous ) countries, branched runs, points, and globules.A The presence of any characteristic consequences in a mark +1 Structureless ( or homogeneous ) countries must be larger than 10 % of the lesion to be considered present. Branched runs and points are counted merely when more than two are clearly seeable. The presence of a individual globule is sufficient for the lesion to be considered positive for globules. Asymmetry: The lesion is bisected by two axes that are positioned to bring forth the lowest dissymmetry possible in footings of boundary lines, colourss, and dermoscopic constructions. The dissymmetry is examined with regard to a point under one or more axes. The dissymmetry index is computed foremost by happening the chief axes of inactiveness of the tumour form in the image, and it is obtained by overlapping the two halves of the tumour along the chief axes of inactiveness and spliting the non-overlapping country differences of the two halves by the entire country of the tumour. Fig ( a ) Fig ( B ) : Figure: ( degree Celsius ) Figure: 3.12 ( a ) , ( B ) , ( degree Celsius ) : Calculation of symmetric matrix Boundary line: The lesion is divided into eight pie-piece sections. Figure: ( a ) Then, it is examined if there is a crisp, disconnected cutoff of pigment form at the fringe of the lesion or a gradual, indistinct cutoff. Border-based characteristics depicting the form of the lesion are so computed. In order to pull out boundary line information, image cleavage is performed. Figure: ( B ) Figure: ( C ) Fig 3.13. ( a ) , ( B ) , ( degree Celsius ) : Boundary line computation for Skin Lesion. It is considered to be a really critical measure in the whole procedure of skin lesion designation and involves the extraction of the part of involvement ( ROI ) , which is the lesion and its separation from the healthy tegument. Most usual methods are based on thresholding, part growth, and colour transmutation ( e.g. , chief constituents transform, CIELAB colour infinite and spherical co-ordinates [ 131 ] , and JSEG algorithm [ 132 ] ) . Extra methods affecting unreal intelligence Techniques like fuzzed boundary lines [ 133 ] and declaratory cognition ( melanocytic lesion images segmentation implementing by spacial dealingss based declaratory cognition ) are used for finding skin lesion characteristics. The latter methods are characterized as part attacks, because they are based on different colorization among the malignant parts and the chief boundary line. Another class of cleavage techniques is contour attacks utilizing classical border sensors ( e.g. , Sobel, Canny, etc. ) that produce a aggregation of borders go forthing the choice of the boundary up to the human perceiver. Hybrid attacks [ 134 ] usage both colour transmutation and border sensing techniques, whereas serpents or active contours 135 ] are considered the outstanding state-of-the art technique for boundary line sensing. More information sing boundary line sensing every bit good as a public presentation comparing of the aforesaid methods can be found in [ 136 ] and [ 137 ] . The most popular boundary line characteristics are the greatest diameter, the country, the boundary line abnormality, the tenuity ratio [ 138 ] , the disk shape index ( CIRC ) [ 139 ] , the discrepancy of the distance of the boundary line lesion points from the centroid location [ 140 ] , and the symmetricalness distance ( SD ) [ 133 ] . The CIRC is mathematically defined by the undermentioned equation: Where A is the surface of the examined country and P is its margin. SD calculates the mean supplanting among a figure of vertexes as the original form is transformed into a symmetric form. The symmetric form closest to the original form P is called the symmetricalness transform ( ST ) of P. The SD of an object is determined by the sum of attempt required to transform the original form into a symmetrical form, and can be calculated as follows: Apart from sing the boundary line as a contour, accent is besides placed on the characteristics that quantify the passage ( speed ) from the lesion to the tegument. Such characteristics are the minimal, maximal, mean, and discrepancy responses of the radient operator applied on the intesity image along the lesion boundary line. degree Celsius ) Color: Color belongingss inside the lesion are examined, and the figure of colourss present is determined. They may include light brown, dark brown, black, ruddy ( ruddy vascular countries are scored ) , white ( if whiter than the environing tegument ) , and slate blue. In add-on, colour texture might be used for finding the nature of melanocytic tegument lesions [ 141 ] . Typical colour images consist of the three-color channels red, green, and blue ( RGB ) . The colour characteristics are based on measurings on these colour channels or other colour channels such as cyan, magenta, yellow ( CMY ) , hue, impregnation, value ( HSV ) , Y-luminance, UV ( YUV ) chrominance constituents, or assorted combinations of them, linear or non. Additional colour characteristics are the spherical co-ordinates LAB norm and discrepancy responses for pels within the lesion [ 142 ] Color variegation may be calculated by mensurating lower limit, upper limit, norm, and standard divergences of the selected channel values and colour strength, and by mensurating chromatic differences inside the lesion. vitamin D ) Differential constructions: The figure of structural constituents present is determined, i.e. , pigment web, points ( scored if three or more are present ) , globules ( scored if two or more are present ) , structureless countries ( counted if larger than 10 % of lesion ) , and runs ( scored if three or more are present ) . 2 ) Form Analysis: The form analysis method seeks to place specific forms, which may be planetary ( reticulate, ball-shaped, sett, homogenous, starburst, parallel, and multicomponent, nonspecific ) or local ( pigment web, dots/globules/ moles [ 143 ] , runs, blue-whitish head covering, arrested development constructions, hypo-pigmentation, splodges, vascular constructions ) . 3 ) Menzies Method: The Menzies method looks for negative characteristics ( symmetricalness of form, presence of a individual colour ) and positive ( bluish-white head covering, multiple brown points, pseudopods, radial cyclosis, scar-like depigmentation, peripheral black dots/globules, multiple ( five to six ) colourss, multiple blue/gray points, broadened web ) . 4 ) Seven-Point Checklist: The seven-point checklist [ 144 ] , [ 145 ] refers to seven standards that assess chromatic features and the form and/or texture of the lesion. These standards are untypical pigment web, blue-whitish head covering, untypical vascular form, irregular runs, irregular dots/globules, irregular splodges, and arrested development constructions. Each one is considered to impact the concluding appraisal with a different weight. The dermoscopic image of a melanocytic tegument lesion is analyzed in order to grounds the presence of these standard standards ; eventually, a mark is calculated from this analysis, and if a entire mark of three or more is given, the lesion is classified as malignant, otherwise it is classified as birthmark. 5 ) Texture Analysis: Texture analysis is the effort to quantify texture impressions such as â€Å" all right, † â€Å" rough, † and â€Å" irregular † and to place, step, and use the differences between them. Textural characteristics and texture analysis methods can be slackly divided into two classs: statistical and structural. Statistical methods define texture in footings of local gray-level statistics that are changeless or easy varying over a textured part. Different textures can be discriminated by comparing the statistics computed over different subregions. Some of the most common textural characteristics are as follows. Neighboring gray-level dependance matrix ( NGLDM ) and lattice aperture wave form set ( LAWS ) are two textural attacks used for analysing and observing the pigmented web on tegument lesions. Dissimilarity, vitamin D, is a step related to contrast utilizing additive addition of weights as one moves off from the grey degree accompaniment matrix ( GLCM ) diagonal. Dissimilarity is calculated as follows: Where I is the row figure, J is the column figure, N is the entire figure of rows and columns of the GLCM matrix, and is the normalization equation in which Vi, J is the digital figure ( DN ) value of the cell I, J in the image window ( i.e. , the current gray-scale pel value ) . Angular 2nd minute ( ASM ) , which is a step related to methodicalness, where Pi, J is used as a weight to itself, is given by GLCM mean, I?i, which differs from the familiar average equation in the sense that it denotes the frequence of the happening of one pel value in combination with a certain neighbour pel value, is given by The research workers that seek to automatically place skin lesions exploit the available computational capablenesss by seeking for many of the characteristics stated earlier, every bit good as extra characteristics. 6 ) Other Features Utilized: The differential constructions as described in the ABCD method, every bit good as most of the forms that are used by the form analysis, the Menzies method, and the seven-point checklist are really seldom used for machine-controlled tegument lesion categorization, evidently due to their complexness. A fresh method presented in [ 140 ] utilizations 3-D pseudoelevated images of skin lesions that reveal extra information sing the abnormality and inhomogeneity of the examined surface. Several attempts concern mensurating the dynamicss of skin lesions [ 146 ] . The ratio of discrepancies RV in [ 147 ] has been defined as where standard divergence between yearss ( SDB2 ) is the between twenty-four hours discrepancy of the colour variable computed utilizing the mean values at each twenty-four hours of all lesion sites and topics, standard divergence intraday ( SDI2 ) is the intraday discrepancy of the colour variable estimated from the calculations at each twenty-four hours of all lesion sites and topics, and standard divergence analytical ( SDA2 ) is the discrepancy of the colour variable computed utilizing normal skin sites of all topics and times. Finally, ripple analysis has besides been used for break uping the tegument lesion image and utilizing ripple coefficients for its word picture [ 148 ] . C. Feature Selection The success of image acknowledgment depends on the right choice of the characteristics used for the categorization. The latter is a typical optimisation job, which may be resolved with heuristic schemes, greedy or familial algorithms, other computational intelligence methods, or particular schemes from statistical form acknowledgment [ e.g. , cross-validation ( XVAL ) , leave-one-out ( LOO ) method, consecutive forward drifting choice ( SFFS ) , consecutive backward drifting choice ( SBFS ) , chief constituent analysis ( PCA ) , and generalized consecutive characteristic choice ( GSFS ) ] [ 149 ] . The usage of characteristic choice algorithms is motivated by the demand for extremely precise consequences, computational grounds, and a peaking phenomenon frequently observed when classifiers are trained with a limited set of acquisition samples3.19 Skin Lesion Classification MethodsIn this subdivision, the most popular methods for skin lesion categorization are examined. The undertaking involves chiefly two stages after characteristic choice, larning and proving [ 150 ] , which are analyzed in the undermentioned paragraphs. A. Learning Phase During the learning stage, typical characteristic values are extracted from a sequence of digital images stand foring classified skin lesions. The most classical acknowledgment paradigm is statistical. Covariance matrices are computed for the discriminatory steps, normally under the multivariate Gaussian premise. Parametric discriminant maps are so determined, leting categorization of unknown lesions ( discriminant analysis ) . The major job of this attack is the demand for big acquisition samples. Nervous webs are webs of interrelated nodes composed of assorted phases that emulate some of the ascertained belongingss of biological nervous systems and pull on the analogies of adaptative biological acquisition. Learning occurs through larning over a big set of informations where the Learning algorithm iteratively adjusts the connexion weights ( synapses ) by minimising a given mistake map [ 151 ] , [ 152 ] . The support vector machine ( SVM ) is a popular algorithm for informations categorization in two categories [ 153 ] – [ 155 ] , [ 156 ] . SVMs allow the enlargement of the information provided by a learning dataset as a additive combination of a subset of the informations in the acquisition set ( support vectors ) . These vectors locate a hyper surface that separates the input informations with a really good grade of generalisation. The SVM algorithm is based on acquisition, proving, and public presentation rating, which are common stairss in every acquisition process. Learning involves optimisation of a convex cost map where there are no local lower limit to perplex the acquisition procedure. Testing is based on theoretical account rating utilizing the support vectors to sort a trial dataset. Performance rating is based on mistake rate finding as the trial dataset size tends to eternity. The adaptative wavelet-transform-based tree-structure categorization ( ADWAT ) method [ 157 ] is a specific tegument lesion image categorization technique that uses statistical analysis of the characteristic informations to happen the threshold values that optimally partitions the image-feature infinite for categorization. A known set of images is decomposed utilizing 2-D ripple transform, and the channel energies and energy ratios are used as characteristics in the statistical analysis. During the categorization stage, the tree construction of the campaigner image obtained utilizing the same decomposition algorithm is semantically compared with the tree-structure theoretical accounts of melanoma and dysplastic birthmark. A categorization variable ( CV ) is used to rate the tree construction of the campaigner image. CV is set to a value of 1 when the chief image is decomposed. The value of CV is incremented by one for every extra channel decomposed. When the algorithm decomposes a dy splastic birthmark image, merely one degree of decomposition should happen ( impart 0 ) . Therefore, for values of CV equal to 1, a campaigner image is assigned to the dysplastic nevus category. A value of CV greater than 1 indicates farther decomposition of the campaigner image, and the image is consequently assigned to the melanoma category. B. Testing Phase The public presentation of each classifier is tested utilizing an ideally big set ( i.e. , over 300 skin lesion image sets ) of manually classified images. A subset of them, for example, 80 % of the images, is used as a acquisition set, and the other 20 % of the samples is used for proving utilizing the trained classifier. The Learning and trial images are exchanged for all possible combinations to avoid prejudice in the solution. Most usual categorization public presentation appraisal in the context of melanoma sensing is the true positive fraction ( TPF ) bespeaking the fraction of malignant tegument lesions right classified as melanoma and the true negative fraction ( TNF ) bespeaking the fraction of dysplastic or nonmelanoma lesions right classified as nonmelanoma, severally [ 158 ] , [ 159 ] . A graphical representation of categorization public presentation is the ROCcurve, which displays the â€Å" trade-off † between sensitiveness ( i.e. , existent malignant lesions that are right identified as such, besides known as TPF ) and specificity ( i.e. , the proportion of benign lesions that are right identified, besides known as TNF ) that consequences from the convergence between the distribution of lesion tonss for melanoma and nevi [ 160 ] , [ 161 ] , [ 162 ] . A good classifier is one with stop ping point to 100 % sensitiveness at a threshold such that high specificity is besides obtained. The ROC for such a classifier will plot as a steeply lifting curve. When different classifiers are compared, the one whose curve rises fastest should be optimum. If sensitiveness and specificity were weighted every bit, the greater the country under the ROC curve ( AUC ) , the better the classifier is [ 163 ] .

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Dante’s Inferno Notes

A huge and powerful warrior-king who virtually embodies defiance against his highest god, Capaneus is an exemplary blasphemer–with blasphemy understood as direct violence against God. Still, it is striking that Dante selects a pagan character to represent one of the few specifically religious sins punished in hell. Dante's portrayal of Capaneus in Inferno 14.43-72–his large size and scornful account of Jove striking him down with thunderbolts–is based on the Thebaid, a late Roman epic (by Statius) treating a war waged by seven kings against the city of Thebes.Capaneus' arrogant defiance of the gods is a running theme in the Thebaid, though Statius' description of the warrior's courage in the scenes leading up to his death reveals elements of Capaneus' nobility as well as his contempt for the gods. For instance, Capaneus refuses to follow his comrades in a deceitful military operation against the Theban forces under the cover of darkness, insisting instead on figh ting fair and square out in the open. Nevertheless, Capaneus' boundless contempt ultimately leads to his demise when he climbs atop the walls protecting the city and directly challenges the gods: â€Å"come now, Jupiter, and strive with all your flames against me! Or are you braver at frightening timid maidens with your thunder, and razing the towers of your father-in-law Cadmus?† (Thebaid 10.904-6).Recalling the similar arrogance displayed by the Giants at Phlegra (and their subsequent defeat), the deity gathers his terrifying weapons and strikes Capaneus with a thunderbolt. His hair and helmet aflame, Capaneus feels the fatal fire burning within and falls from the walls to the ground below. He finally lies outstretched, his lifeless body as immense as that of a giant. This is the image inspiring Dante's depiction of Capaneus as a large figure appearing in the defeated pose of the blasphemers, flat on their backs Ser Brunnetto Latino = Round Three- Violence Against NatureOne of the most important figures in Dante's life and in the Divine Comedy, Brunetto Latini is featured among the sodomites in one of the central cantos of the Inferno. Although the poet imagines Brunetto in hell, Dante-character and Brunetto show great affection and respect for one another during their encounter in Inferno 15.Brunetto (c. 1220 – 1294) was a prominent guelph who spent many years living in exile in Spain and France–where he composed his encyclopedic work, Trà ©sor (â€Å"Treasure†: Inf. 15.119-20)–before returning to Florence in 1266 and assuming positions of great responsibility in the commune and region (notary, scribe, consul, prior). Such was Brunetto's reputation that chroniclers of the time praised him as the â€Å"initiator and master in refining the Florentines.† While Brunetto's own writings–in terms of quality and significance–are far inferior to Dante's, he was perhaps the most influential promoter in the Midd le Ages of the essential idea (derived from the Roman writer Cicero) that eloquence–in both oral and written forms–is beneficial to society only when combined with wisdom.We understand from this episode that Brunetto played a major–if informal–part in Dante's education, most likely as a mentor through his example of using erudition and intelligence in the service of the city. Apart from the reputed frequency of sexual relations among males in this time and place, there is no independent documentation to explain Brunetto's appearance in Dante's poem among the sodomites. Brunetto was married with three–perhaps four–children. Many modern scholarly discussions of Dante's Brunetto either posit a substitute vice for the sexual one–linguistic perversion, unnatural political affiliations, a quasi-Manichean heresy–or emphasize a symbolic form of sodomy over the literal act (e.g., rhetorical perversion, a failed theory of knowledge, a pr oto-humanist pursuit of immortality).Geryon = Round Three- Violence Against Art(fraud) giant with three heads and bodies Geryon, merely described in Virgil's Aeneid as a â€Å"three-bodied shade† (he was a cruel king slain by Hercules), is one of Dante's most complex creatures. With an honest face, a colorful and intricately patterned reptilian hide, hairy paws, and a scorpion's tail, Geryon is an image of fraud (Inf. 17.7-27)–the realm to which he transports Dante and Virgil (circles 8 and 9). Strange as he is, Geryon offers some of the best evidence of Dante's attention to realism. The poet compares Geryon's upward flight to the precise movements of a diver swimming to the surface of the sea (Inf. 16.130-6), and he helps us imagine Geryon's descent by noting the sensation of wind rising from below and striking the face of a traveler in flight (Inf. 17.115-17).By comparing Geryon to a sullen, resentful falcon (Inf.  17.127-36), Dante also adds a touch of psychologic al realism to the episode: Geryon may in fact be bitter because he was tricked–when Virgil used Dante's knotted belt to lure the monster (Inf. 16.106-23)–into helping the travelers. Dante had used this belt–he informs us long after the fact (Inf. 16.106-8)–to try to capture the colorfully patterned leopard who impeded his ascent of the mountain in Inferno 1.31-3. Suggestively associated with the sort of factual truth so wondrous that it appears to be false (Inf. 16.124), Geryon is thought by some readers to represent the poem itself or perhaps a negative double of the poem. Pier della Vigna = Round Two- Violence Against ThemselvesLike Dante, Pier della Vigna (c. 1190 – 1249) was an accomplished poet–part of the â€Å"Sicilian School† of poetry, he wrote sonnets–and a victim of his own faithful service to the state. With a first-rate legal education and ample rhetorical talent, Pier rose quickly through the ranks of public servi ce in the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily, from scribe and notary to judge and official spokesman for the imperial court of Frederick II. But his powers appear to have exceeded even these titles, as Pier claims to have had final say over Frederick's decisions (Inf. 13.58-63).While evidence of corruption casts some doubt on Pier's account of faithful service to the emperor, it is generally believed that he was indeed falsely accused of betraying Frederick's trust by envious colleagues and political enemies (Inf. 13.64-9). In this way, Pier's story recalls that of Boethius, author of the Consolation of Philosophy, a well known book in the Middle Ages (and a favorite of Dante's) recounting the fall from power of another talented individual falsely accused of betraying his emperor. Medieval commentators relate that Frederick, believing the charges against Pier (perhaps for plotting with the pope against the emperor), had him imprisoned and blinded. Unable to accept this wretched fate, Pier brutally took his life by smashing his head against the wall (perhaps of a church) or possibly by leaping from a high window just as the emperor was passing below in the street.Pier's name–Vigna means â€Å"vineyard†Ã¢â‚¬â€œundoubtedly made him an even more attractive candidate for Dante's suicide-trees. As an added part of the contrapasso for the suicides, the souls will not be reunited with their bodies at the Last Judgment but will instead hang their retrieved corpses on the trees (Inf.  13.103-8).MinotaurThe path down to the three rings of circle 7 is covered with a mass of boulders that fell–as Virgil explains (Inf. 12.31-45)–during the earthquake triggered by Christ's harrowing of hell. The Minotaur, a bull-man who appears on this broken slope (Inf. 12.11-15), is most likely a guardian and symbol of the entire circle of violence. Dante does not specify whether the Minotaur has a man's head and bull's body or the other way around (sources support both possibilities), but he clearly underscores the bestial rage of the hybrid creature. At the sight of Dante and Virgil, the Minotaur bites himself, and his frenzied bucking–set off by Virgil's mention of the monster's executioner–allows the travelers to proceed unharmed.Almost everything about the Minotaur's story–from his creation to his demise–contains some form of violence. Pasiphaà «, wife of King Minos of Crete, lusted after a beautiful white bull and asked Daedalus to construct a â€Å"fake cow† (Inf. 12.13) in which she could enter to induce the bull to mate with her; Daedalus obliged and the Minotaur was conceived. Minos wisely had Daedalus build an elaborate labyrinth to conceal and contain this monstrosity.To punish the Athenians, who had killed his son, Minos supplied the Minotaur with an annual sacrificial offering of seven Athenian boys and seven Athenian girls. When Ariadne (the Minotaur's half-sister: Inf. 12.20) fell in love wit h one of these boys (Theseus, Duke of Athens: Inf. 12.16-18), the two of them devised a plan to slay the Minotaur: Theseus entered the labyrinth with a sword and a ball of thread, which he unwound as he proceeded toward the center; having slain the Minotaur, Theseus was thus able to retrace his steps and escape the labyrinth CentaursThe Centaurs–men from the waist up with lower bodies of horses–guard the first ring of circle 7, a river of blood in which the shades of murderers and bandits are immersed to varying depths. Armed with bows and arrows, thousands of Centaurs patrol the bank of the river, using their weapons to keep the souls at their allotted depth (Inf. 12.73-5). In classical mythology, the Centaurs are perhaps best known for their uncouth, violent behavior: guests at a wedding, they attempted–their lust incited by wine–to carry off the bride and other women; a fierce battle ensued, described by Ovid in all its gory detail (Met. 12.210-535), i n which the horse-men suffered the heaviest losses. Two of the three Centaurs who approach Dante and Virgil fully earned this negative reputation.Pholus, whom Virgil describes as â€Å"full of rage† (Inf. 12.72), was one of the combatants at the wedding. Nessus, selected to carry Dante across the river in hell, was killed by Hercules–with a poisoned arrow–for his attempted rape of the hero's beautiful wife, Deianira, after Hercules had entrusted the Centaur to carry her across a river (Nessus avenged his own death: he gave his blood-soaked shirt to Deianira as a â€Å"love-charm,† which she–not knowing the shirt was poisoned–later gave to Hercules when she doubted his love [Inf. 12.67-9].) Chiron, the leader of the Centaurs, enjoyed a more favorable reputation as the wise tutor of both Hercules and Achilles (Inf. 12.71).Punishments of Each Ring -First Ring- For violence against neighbors. Made to boil in blood, and shot by arrows if they et out higher than they are deemed worthy. Fitting because those torturedmust boil in the blood they creted in life by violence.Chief sinner: alexander the great, who was violent against many of his countrymen as a tyrant.  · -Second Ring- For those violent against themselvesthey are turned into trees and are immobile. They are tortured and pecked at by Harpies. They will never be returned to their bodies because they didnt properly appreciate them in the first place.Chief Sinner: Pier della Vigna, who felt so ashamed by the lies of shcemers, took his own life.  · -Third Ring-For those violent against God. Three circles:  · Blasphamers – Just on hot sand · Sodomites – Also rained upon my fire  · Violent against art – also with purses around thier necksChief Sinner: Capaneus, Besieged Thebes. He is very defiant, still, and says hell shall never break him.Allusions  · Phlegethon-Literally a â€Å"river of fire† (Aen. 6.550-1), Phlegethon is the nam e Dante gives to the river of hot blood that serves as the first ring of  circle 7: spillers of blood themselves, violent offenders against others are submerged in the river to a level corresponding to their guilt. Dante does not identify the river–described in detail in Inferno 12.46-54 and 12.100-39–until the travelers have crossed it (Dante on the back of Nessus) and passed through the forest of the suicides. Now they approach a red stream flowing out from the inner circumference of the forest across the plain of sand (Inf. 14.76-84).After Virgil explains the common source of all the rivers in hell, Dante still fails to realize–without further explanation–that the red stream in fact connects to the broader river of blood that he previously crossed, now identified as the Phlegethon (Inf. 14.121-35).  · Polydorus-If Dante had believed what he read in the Aeneid, Virgil would not have had to make him snap one of the branches to know that the suicide-s hades and the trees are one and the same–this, at least, is what Virgil says to the wounded suicide-tree (Inf. 13.46-51). Virgil here alludes to the episode of the â€Å"bleeding bush† from Aeneid 3.22-68. The â€Å"bush† in this case is Polydorus, a young Trojan prince who was sent by his father (Priam, King of Troy) to the neighboring kingdom of Thrace when Troy was besieged by the Greeks.Polydorus arrived bearing a large amount of gold, and the King of Thrace–to whose care the welfare of the young Trojan was entrusted–murdered Polydorus and took possession of his riches. Aeneas unwittingly discovers Polydorus' unburied corpse when he uproots three leafy branches to serve as cover for a sacrificial altar: the first two times, Aeneas freezes with terror when dark blood drips from the uprooted branch; the third time, a voice–rising from the ground–begs Aeneas to stop causing harm and identifies itself as Polydorus. The plant-man expla ins that the flurry of spears that pierced his body eventually took the form of the branches that Aeneas now plucks. The Trojans honor Polydorus with a proper burial before leaving the accursed land.Old Man of Crete-Dante invents the story of the large statue of an old man–located in Mount Ida on the Island of Crete–for both practical and symbolic purposes ( Inf. 14.94-120). Constructed of a descending hierarchy of materials–gold head, silver arms and chest, brass midsection, iron for the rest (except one clay foot)–the statue recalls the various ages of humankind (from the golden age to the iron age: Ovid, Met. 1.89-150) in a pessimistic view of history and civilization devolving from best to worst. Dante's statue also closely  recalls the statue appearing in King Nebuchadnezzar's dream in the Bible; this dream is revealed in a vision to Daniel, who informs the king that the composition of the statue signifies a declining succession of kingdoms all inf erior to the eternal kingdom of God (Daniel 2:31-45).That the statue is off-balance–leaning more heavily on the clay foot–and facing Rome (â€Å"as if in a mirror†) probably reflects Dante's conviction that society suffers from the excessive political power of the pope and the absence of a strong secular ruler. Although the statue is not itself found in hell, the tears that flow down the crack in its body (only the golden head is whole) represent all the suffering of humanity and thus become the river in hell that goes by different names according to region: Acheron, Styx, Phlegethon, Cocytus (Inf. 14.112-20).Phaethon and Icarus-As he descends aboard Geryon through the infernal atmosphere, Dante recalls the classical stories of previous aviators (Inf. 17.106-14). Phaethon, attempting to confirm his genealogy as the son of Apollo, bearer of the sun, took the reins of the sun-chariot against his father's advice. Unable to control the horses, Phaethon scorched a la rge swath of the heavens; with the earth's fate hanging in the balance, Jove killed the boy with a thunderbolt (Ovid, Met. 1.745-79; 2.1-332).Daedalus (see Minotaur above), to escape from the island of Crete, made wings for himself and his son by binding feathers with thread and wax. Icarus, ignoring his father's warnings, flew too close to the sun; the wax melted and the boy crashed to the sea below (Met. 8.203-35). So heartbroken was Daedalus that he was unable to depict Icarus' fall in his carvings upon the gates of a temple he built to honor Apollo (Aen. 6.14-33). Experiencing flight for the first, and presumable only, time in his life–aboard a â€Å"filthy image of fraud,† no less–Dante understandably identifies with these two figures whose reckless flying led to their tragic deaths.