Saturday, August 31, 2019

Analyze Globalization’s Impact on Singapore’s Development Essay

A group of industrialized nations including Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the I-JK, and the United States are called developed country. Kofi Annan, former Secretary General of the United Nations, defined a developed country as follows: â€Å"A developed country is one that allows all its citizens to enjoy a free and healthy life in a safe environment. â€Å"Developing country’ is a term generally used to describe a nation with a low level of material well-being. Countries with more advanced conomies than other developing nations, but which have not yet fully demonstrated the signs of a developed country, are categorized as developing country. Developing countries are in general countries which have not achieved a significant degree of industrialization relative to their populations, and which have, in most cases a medium to low standard of living. There is a strong correlation between low income and high population growth. A developing country can be a result of many characteristics: resources, historical background, population, economic structure and ystem. They are basically under developed country that reflects a failure to gain levels ot living throughout most ot their population. Yet there nas been a signitlcant improvement by these countries general level of living as growth. â€Å"Under-developed country’ is a term generally used to describe a nation with lack of access to Job opportunities, health care, drinkable water, food, education and housing. Underdevelopment takes place when resources are not used to their fullsocio-economic potential, with the result that local or egional development is slower in most cases than it should be. Furthermore, it results from the complex interplay of internal and external factors that allow less developed countries only a lop-sided development progression. Underdeveloped nations are characterized by a wide disparity between their rich and poor populations, and an unhealthy balance of trade STATISTICS It is considered that the countries with more than $735 per capita income per year is termed as developed country. In 2002 PCI was $480. So, Technically India is a Developing country not a Developed Country.

Friday, August 30, 2019


Monomaniac's â€Å"Games For Change Keynote† lecture is about how much of an influence games have on society and the impact it can bring. Her two main questions to answer during this lecture are â€Å"What can games change? † and â€Å"What do games change? † MacDougal presents a list of some people's twitter responses to what games do for them. The first few responses refer to ones emotional state. People with Initial negative emotions such as sadness and anxiety can play games and end up feeling much better. Another change she presents Is â€Å"mental resilience†.This refers too arson's mindset and how it Is altered with games. It Is possible for people's confidence and performance levels to Increase after some time playing games. The next thing MacDougal talks about Is â€Å"social resilience†. How people socialize and Interact with the people around them can change with game play as well. For example, many of the games In the present day are mul tilayer and present an option to connect with players around the world. This creates socializing and Interacting with other online players who may even be real life friends.Before she alas about the science and data behind her lecture she gives us a list of how we can measure these changes when playing games. The list includes analyzing emotional, mental, neurological, social, self-efficacy, and engagement levels. In more general terms, MacDougal believes that â€Å"games can change your life. † MacDougal talks about an interesting mission of hers for this talk, which is to â€Å"increase the lifespan of everyone in this room by seven and a half minutes† and even provides a formula to show where she got that specific number.A good point she brings up is that on our deathbeds, many people may end up regretting all the time they devoted to playing games. Many people will say that the time spent in front of a game console or computer controlling a virtual character could have been used more wisely. She presents to the audience a list of the top five regrets people have. These regrets are working too hard, not staying in touch with friends, not allowing yourself to be happier, not truly expressing yourself, and not living the life that stayed true to your ideas. MacDougal goes on to say that each one of these regrets can be answered by laying games.The first regret of working too hard can be because people wish they had spent more time with their family and kids. Games are the perfect solution for this regret. Playing games with friends and family can definitely strengthen bonds and relationships. The second regret of not keeping in touch with friends can also be fixed through social games. MacDougal gives the example of social games such as Words with Friends and Formative that keeps people connected with others. The benefit games also produce Is that no matter how distant two people are, they canInteract with each other by these games. Games are al so scientifically proven to fix the third regret, which is not letting yourself be happier. MacDougal provides data from an East Carolina university stating that online games have actually outperformed clinical activities of depression when It comes to making someone happier. The fourth regret of not expressing yourself more can be solved by creating virtual avatars and characters that can be molded and shaped Into whoever you desire. The last regret on the list is not living a life true to your dreams.

ABC Wholesalers Ltd Essay

You are nearing completion of the 31 December 2015 audit of ABC Wholesalers Ltd. The figures below have been extracted from the final draft financial report. During you review of the audit files, you note the following items recorded on the summary of audit differences. 1. ABC Wholesalers has been involved in a long-running dispute with the taxation authorities in relation to the amount of sales tax payable on certain lines of merchandise. The case was resolved this year in favour of the taxation authorities. The court ruled that ABC Wholesalers, as well as paying the outstanding taxes, must pay a non-tax-deductible fine of $420,000. 2. Sales cut-off at one of ABC Wholesaler’s stores was incorrect, resulting in a large sale of inventory made early in January 2015 being recorded in the 31 December 2014 year-end. The cost price of the inventory sold was $250,000. ABC Wholesalers marks up inventory by 40%. 3. Purchases cut-off at the same store was also incorrect, resulting in a large purchase of inventory made in late December not being recorded until January 2015. The invoice price of the inventory purchased was %5,950,000. You also note that the planning materiality level was set by the audit manager at $200,000. Question: a) Consider items 1-3 independently. State whether the amounts involved would be considered material for the purpose of issuing an auditor’s report. Give reasons. b) Explain the relevance, if any, of the planning materiality level to your decisions in a).

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Personal Change Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Personal Change - Essay Example no longer loved my grandmother; instead, it was the result of the fact that she no longer spent so much time watching me due to the fact that I grew up and no longer needed such a high level of care. The ending to the situation came about right after my grandmother had a stroke. It was at this point that she was no longer capable of taking care of herself and required nearly constant care by either a loved one or a professional caretaker. As the situation progressed, I reclused into a type of neutral zone where the feelings, thoughts, and childhood closeness I shared with my grandmother were but a distant memory; although a happy one. Due to the fact that she was just a shell of her former self during this time, it was impossible for me to rebuild the relationship we had once enjoyed during my youth. It was at this point that I made the fateful decision to withdraw myself from her and not spend the time that I would have been happy to spend with her had this occurred during my early youth. Sadly, the new beginning only came after my grandmother had passed away from a second stroke. This new beginning was of course something that I should have realized far sooner but due to my own selfish motives and lack of patience, had not come to grips with yet. Due to my grandmother’s passing, I instantly regretted the fact that I had not made a more concerted effort to be with her during her final years. Although I still loved her deeply, I realized that it was my own selfish nature that had kept us apart and caused me to miss out on the very last chance I would ever have to speak with and spend time with my grandmother. As the old saying goes, â€Å"you never appreciate something until you lose it†. In this way, this new beginning caused me to come to a full and complete appreciation for this as well as purposing within my own mind to not let another such situation occur without me doing all my best to spend the quality time with the loved one prior to the risk of

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Binge Drinking Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Binge Drinking - Research Paper Example Binge drinking is not a good thing to be practiced and inevitably can cause destruction to physical and psychological health of a person. Binge drinking is an activity predominately activity among college students rather than any other group in a community. According to (Wolberg,23-39),â€Å"The number of students who drink with the intent of getting drunk has increased from 40% to47%, and the number of "frequent" binge drinkers, defined as those who binged at least three times in the last two weeks, has increased from 20% to23%†.The college students who are youngsters indulge in binge drinking because they mostly get intimidated or influenced by their mates and peers. These people are less educated about the after affects of alcoholism and get caught in the intoxicative experience of alcohol. Being young they are very impulsive, and does not have a control on their senses and end up being binge drinking victims. The Binge drinking phenomena does not only react on the physical and mental well being of a person but bring about lot of calamities to the social arena and people existing in it. It is understood by research that, college students drink alcohol with a sole purpose of getting drunk. Once they are drunk they are devoid of their senses and involve in frights, raping, social violence and other outrageous activities. It also badly hampers their education purposes and makes them alcohol addicted people who serve no value to the society. It is seen that, white college student engage more in binge drinking than black students.â€Å"Only 16.5 percent of African-American college students had engaged in binge drinking, about one third the rate for white college students, which then stood at 48.1 percent†. Mostly black college students refrain from drinking alcohol as they do not take is as a so called â€Å"cool thing†. Additionally most of them belonging to poor social class cannot afford to buy alcohol. The students as they turn major, is already victimized to alcohol, and this affect they thinking and responding ability. It is not a wrong thing to consume alcohol, but the drinking process should not get out of control so as to put their health at risk. Most of the college students being away from home town enjoy a sense of freedom which makes them get influenced by alcohol excessively.Additionally, their parents and family members are away and they have nobody to control their activities. It is a saddening fact that college students in their productive years get accustomed to binge drinking and lose their opportunity to build foundation of their future career. It is seen that youngsters who get started with alcohol consumption around the age of 19 are more likely to be under its influence in future and become heavy binge drinkers. Unfortunately, people like this also drives under alcohol intoxication and meet with accidents and lose their lives. As per (CSPI) â€Å"Frequent binge drinkers are 21 times more likely t han non-binge drinkers to miss classes, engage in vandalism, be injured or hurt, engage in unplanned sexual activity†. Since minors are less matured and also less educated about the aftermaths of binge drinking, end up in worst disasters under the influence of various alcoholic beverages. When college students get intoxicated, they like to explore activities which are bizarre and end up getting hurt or injured. There are

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Response to class members Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Response to class members - Assignment Example They have customers, in other words, that they have to please. When this happens, they sometimes lose their autonomy. They lose their â€Å"backbone,† which is also important to them as artists. I agree with you that Oprah is a good example of an artist with a backbone. She has a large role in changing perceptions about African Americans and women. She showed the world that her race and gender are not impediments to her success. In her case, her backbone has helped strengthen the backbones of others. Right now, Oprah is using her power to improve the lives of marginalized groups. I think that her work indicates a very significant role of artists. Artists contribute to their society, too. They contribute their art to the world, as well as their ideas and vision of a good society. In other words, art can also be life changing. I agree with what you said that artists have a role to express their individuality and to use art as a way of empowering themselves. Art is a subjective process and product. Artists use art to express their emotions and ideas. It helps them understand their identities and develop their skills. Like what you said, your brother uses his art to emphasize his individuality. You also mentioned that artists also have a role to inspire others. They have unique talents that let them make wonderful products that inspire their audience. Inspiring them causes them to think and to act. When you said, â€Å"Artists are the doormen of change,† this immensely struck me. Artwork, such as paintings, literature, and dances, can be powerful means of expressing new ideas and practices that can challenge and change old ones. The main goal is to change people, so that they can also change the world. Artists either create or feed sparks of changes that impact social conditions. I understand why you used Reba McEntire as an example. She makes country music that inspires others. It is a music that has a culture of its own, and

Monday, August 26, 2019

The Business Environment Assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

The Business Environment Assignment - Essay Example There is tremendous increase in the sales of fast food bars as compared to restaurants revealed by recent surveys. People are still very much interested in fast food. (Mintel Report-March 2004) Barry's Burger Bar (BBB) is a business in a busy university town in England. BBB operates in a very competitive environment. The market structure within which BBB operates dictates the pricing policies, advertising strategy and profitability potential. Barry has been considering changing his prices in order to increase his sales (total revenue). In this assignment we would determine the Business Strategy for BBB as consultants. Although Barry is quite free to make his own policies regarding marketing and pricing but he should have to consider the main factors that are influencing market. For this purpose he need to conduct a brief survey on his own or with the help of his associates to collect the data about his competitors and market forces. By collecting reliable data correct business strategy can be formulated. For this purpose analysis and scenarios Model can be employed (Lynch Richard Corporate Strategy 2003) Brief Analysis: BBB is situated in a busy area and its frequent customers are students and University staff. As it is understandable that purchasing power of students is comparatively low. As they have to finance their studies and their day to day expenses either with the support of parents or by doing low paid part time jobs. These conditions reduce the purchasing power of the students. So if Barry is planning increase the price then he may loose

Sunday, August 25, 2019

How long can an offender stay in jail Term Paper

How long can an offender stay in jail - Term Paper Example On the other hand, an offender’s stay in jail and in prison is also identified through different codes and points of the law. Thereupon, it is vital to state that there might be different misconceptions as a result of a wrong treatment of the laws. The reasons why such things happen are different: biases, false testimonies, etc. The outcomes may include but not limited to life and death sentences or, at the best case, to the conclusion that an offender is freed, pardoned, or paroled. In this case Neubauer & Meinhold (2009) state the following idea: â€Å"One form of early release is parole, the conditional release of an inmate from prison† (p. 281). This is why the long stay of a detainee is not more than a year, as was mentioned before. It is required that until this moment the verdict is announced by the jury and the final claim is noted by the judge. Once again, it is wrong to state that a judge files a motion. A lawyer is the one who is interested in such a procedur e in order to protect his/her client from misjudgments. In fact, a prosecutor is also eligible to file a motion in order to delve better into the case or to prolong the investigation due to some weighty reasons. However, a prosecutor’s role is a bit different in filling a motion, as â€Å"a prosecutor may decide to dismiss the complaint by filing a motion of nolle prosequi† (Lippman, 2010, p. 5). ... All of the stages of the litigation are important to sum up all pros and cons to decide whether or not an offender should be moved to prison or set free as a result. One of the most outrageous examples is that of Scottsboro Nine in the 1930s. In this vein, the only situation when the judge is eligible to prolong the time period in jail is when an offender commits another crime just being in jail itself. These are rare cases which need additional careful examination and investigation. This is why all records should be accurately filed regarding a definite offender so as to omit misconception or mismatch of any kind: â€Å"It is through the maintenance of accurate records documenting all aspects of an inmate’s stay that institutions are able to reduce the likelihood of litigation and increase their chance for prevailing in court if litigation is filed† (Carlson & Garrett, 2008, p. 146). Thus, the documentation and keeping records safely and accurately arranged is paramoun t for making sure an offender will not stay in jail longer than possible according to the county, state or federal jurisprudence. Besides, an offender may stay longer due to the gender discretion or in case when an offender was previously placed on probation. The first case simply states that female inmates are more likely to have longer sentences just because they are â€Å"less likely to work out a plea arrangement† (Siegel, 2008, p. 551). It makes the judicial system more attentive to the state of mental and physical state of women during pretrial through sentencing stages so as to make sure a female inmate can be placed in prison. The second case is based on the precedent of an offender’s inclination to commit crime in the future. Thus, the term of the arrest

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Population Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Population - Essay Example From these projections, we can see that the future population growth seems to slow down as compared to the past growth which accounted for most of the increase in food demand. However, although the population growth in developing countries shows promising reduction rate, it will still be slightly higher than that of developed countries. This could be mainly because of higher fertility rates in the developing countries than the developed countries. There is always the threat of a society overtaxing the available agricultural resources thus returning to a subsistence level of existence. This is the Malthusian catastrophe which depends on the fact of exponential human population growth and arithmetic growth of agricultural resources. To prevent the possibility of a growing human population with demands that surpass agricultural capability, there should be a way to avert radical social changes such as a decline in population. One such solution is the reduction of fertility rates by promoting the use of birth control methods especially in the developing countries. This is because they have higher fertility rates thus higher population growth rates. This method would substantially reduce the growing difference between the developing and developed nations thus avert the Malthusian

Friday, August 23, 2019

Globalization. Globalization In Economic Research Paper

Globalization. Globalization In Economic - Research Paper Example Although globalization is largely viewed as an economic process, it is has been known to have numerous political and social effects as well (Pew Research Center). With regards to the political and economic aspects, globalization is described as the process of decentralization of markets and legal systems (Lynch 6). In relation to businesses, it can be explained as a process in which companies venture into the emerging global markets. Furthermore, entities are taking advantage of the internet to launch their virtual presence in the worldwide marketplace. In most cases globalization is linked to modernization whereby there is transformation of developing nations into developed ones. Internationally, globalization is analyzed in terms of the challenges to the global economy and economic issues in general. There have heated discussions of globalization and its advantages and disadvantages. There have been numerous benefits accruing from the process such as increased trade among nations a nd dissemination of information world over (Knickerbocker 45). On the flip side there have been drawbacks associated with the process including exploitation of the poor nations, erosion of traditional cultures through modernization and the rising levels of global terrorism. In a nutshell, the process has positive and negative implications on countries world over. This essay addresses the complex concept of globalization and focuses on its economic aspect. It can be noted that global economic activities have become more integrated and economically oriented over the recent past. It takes the form of increased trade among nations, an increase in imports and exports, an overall growth of foreign investments and foreign loans. This is due to the existence of better policies and a friendlier economic environment (Knickerbocker 76). In fact, most modern economies argue that it is meaningless to form one’s thinking on national economies as international trade has become the backbone of most domestic economies in most countries. This has been the trend in most countries that have adopted uniform business environments and legal systems that govern the operations of global markets. This has had both negative and positive implications on the global economy. The first advantage linked to globalization development of the industrial economies that are under the Organization of Cooperation and Development (OECD). It is clear that international trading activities contribute to a significant proportion of the economic production or GDP in most countries (Knickerbocker 77). This is because economies tend to specialize in the areas where they have the highest comparative advantage. For example, if a country is best suited to produce steel, it concentrates on its production and outsources other products that may be expensive to produce in the country. Through specialization, countries are able to make optimum profits from their production activities. Globalization has resul ted to intensified trade in the national economies. This is due to the increased flow of goods, services and capital in the global market. This is due to the abolition of trade barriers among nations and uniform regulations on importation and exportation. This simplifies trading among nations and there increasing trading activities in the global economy (Lynch 10). This is facilitated by international trading organizations such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) that make laws and regulations concerning the operations in the global economy. Regionally, bodies such as the European Union (EU), North America Free Trade Association (NAFTA), Common Markets for East and Central Africa (COMESA) and association of South East

Thursday, August 22, 2019

A law presentation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

A law presentation - Essay Example High Court can be traced back to 1980 in the Capital of Australia, Canberra, where most sittings held there. High court exercises original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction. The court interprets common law for the entire Australia. Its broad jurisdiction corresponds to Supreme Court of Canada. This makes it develop the common law consistently across all territories and states, which is the most significant role of the Court. The broad jurisdiction array allows the high court take the lead in Australian laws, and this contributes to uniformity and consistency in laws for different states.2 In this case, the plaintiff, TCL, manufactures air conditioners in China, and it entered into distributorship agreement with the Castel Co. that is registered in Australia. Dispute arose when Castel alleged of the agreement breach by TCL. As a result, Castel started arbitration in 2008 in pursuant of clause 12(1) of their agreement. The TCL opposed the claims and counter-claimed against Castel. When the two claims were presented in High Court, the arbitral tribunal came up with two awards.3 In December 2010, Castel was awarded $2.8M, and in January 2011, Castel was awarded $732,500, and it thereafter proceeded to federal court to enforce arbitral awards based on International Arbitration Act of 1974.2 On January 2012, justice Murphy held that Federal Court was jurisdicted to determine the application of Castel. This pursued the article 35 and 36 of the trade law of the United Nations Commission. The case proceeded to the final hearing, where Justice Murphy in April 2012 reserved the judgment. In July 2012, TCL filed a Show Cause Application. This sought for restraining the defendant from enforcing arbitral awards. In August 2012, Justice Gummow refereed the case in Full Court for the final hearing. Some of the considerations in the high count were the empowerment of an examiner to conduct

Professional Ethics Essay Example for Free

Professional Ethics Essay Lady Justice is the symbol of justice, where show the symbol of the justice: a sword symbolising the court’s coercive power, the scale representing an objective standard by which competing claims are weighed and the blindfold indicating that justice should be meted out objectively, without fear or favour, regardless of power, money, and wealth. Law is a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institution to govern behaviour laws are made by governments, specifically by their legislatures. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitutions (written or unwritten) and the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics, economics and society in countless ways and serves as a social mediator of relation between people. Furthermore, law as the body of official rules and regulation, generally found in constitutions, legislation , judicial opinion, and the like, that used to govern a society and to control the behaviour of its members, so law is a formal mechanism of social control. Legal system is particular ways of establishing and maintaining social order. According to John Austin (English jurist born 1790) law is a â€Å"rule laid down for the guidance of an intelligent being by an intelligent being having power over him.† Professor Hart (Oxford professor of jurisprudence, born 1907) defined â€Å"law as a system of rules, union of primary and secondary rules.† Glanville Williams’ learning the law† define law is the cement of society and also an essential medium of change. Knowledge of law increases ones understanding of public affairs. Its study promotes accuracy of expression, facility in argument and skill in interpreting the written word as well as some understanding of social values†. In law, there are four processes in law formation. There are individual process, group process, social process and political process. Individual process means the set of norms beliefs and values which collectively forms his on her moral standards. Group process which means the surrounding environment of a situation plays a significant role in the norm, beliefs and values of an individual through exposure to these contexts * Cultural or religious * Social or political * economics or technological In group process, where a individual choices of norms, beliefs and values are made, ensures that all of the mentioned factors able to interact among one and another. As we can see in figure 1., where technological changes in communication bring political change in governance . the political changes make economic changes in spending and taxation patterns, which finally change cultural changes in personal lifestyle. Cultural changes Economic changes Political changes Technological changes In social process, all individuals in society do not have the same exposures to economic, technological, social, political, cultural and religious factors. There are some exposures come from: * Individual position  * Family units * Peer groups * Formal organisation The changing of norms, beliefs and values of individuals within society very clear, although delay impact upon the law. Actually, the social process involves an accumulation of power. In addition, people who have similar norms, beliefs and values easily form a group. It is natural join. Furthermore, in political process the norms, beliefs and values held by organisations, groups and individuals established into law can be seen as means of resolving conflict. Organisations, groups and individuals also have different opinions on norms should be done now and beliefs should be accomplished in the future. The different views have to be common to consistent and universal rules to be effective. According to OUMH 3203 professional ethics, â€Å"there are alternative on the ways in which this is done†,  * Presidential leadership * Institutional compromise * Congressional bargaining * Constituent pressure Selected representative are formally assigned the responsibility of the formulation of law in are representative system†. So, there are four process involves in formation of law Individual process is a set of norms, beliefs and values where forms his or her moral standards. Norms is behaviour where individual expects to everyone act when faced with a given situation. For a example baby dumping is a social crisis and has a chronic increase as many cases are occurring in Malaysian society. The baby dumping refers to discarding or leaving alone, for an extended period of time, a child younger than 12 months of age in a public or private setting with the intent to dispose of the child. Based on Bukit Aman Police Headquarters statistics found a total of 580 babies were found dumped between years 2000 to 2006. This number of cases increase every year where as much as 65 baby dumping cases has increased to 83 cases in the year 2006. In the first 5 months, almost everyday there are reports on dumped baby cases. You read it on the front page of the newspaper or see it on the nightly newsa newborn baby found in a back alley. This scenario had been more serious from day to day although there are a lot about this in the mass media. Child dumping is the practice of dumping offspring outside of legal adoption. The dumped child is called a foundling or throwaway. According to a reliable statistics, one baby is dumped every week. A figure that has trebled in the past decades, causes include many social and cultural factors as well as mental illness. Why an individual or teenagers due to unethical to baby dumping? * Family influence Let them to make such a problem in their life. Family break-ups happen after a long period of misunderstandings, fighting and unhappiness. Sometimes they happen suddenly and it is hard to understand why there needs to be change at all. Children are mostly affected by this kind of situation. If both their mother and father decided to a divorce and one cannot raise their child alone, tendency is that they will dump their child. This child will become homeless and found him alone. * Peer influence When children enter school, they influenced by peers with whom they interact every day. For example, if child friends engage with boyfriend or with stranger, the teenager too, may decide to do the same. * Life experience Some important events, where positive or negative, shape people’s lives and influence their ethical beliefs and behavior. For example, when a person have sexuality in teenage and does not get caught, make them to continue to have sexuality until end of their life span. Throughout this case, the norms of this case are to prevent baby dumping it’s necessary to educate individuals about sexuality. We support age-appropriate comprehensive sexuality education, and recommends that schools and communities provide comprehensive sexuality education to all youth and families. Maybe this prevention help teenage to avoid them such a situation Furthermore, Individuals experiencing unwanted pregnancies must receive support and services. Communities should examine their capacity to provide the range of supports and services needed by individuals experiencing unwanted pregnancies. These services must also be publicized; people cannot use services that they do not know about. Finally, education efforts should strive to increase communication among youth, families, and communities. Increased communication may minimize the shame and secrecy associated with an unwanted pregnancy and make young people more likely to take advantage of supports and services in their families and communities.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

The Importance Of Studying Money Finance Essay

The Importance Of Studying Money Finance Essay Money helps us in avoiding the double coincidence of needs as required by a barter economy and by enabling specialization. However, the money supply has a lot of effects on the well being of its users. Some of these effects can be summarized as inflation, wealth creation/destruction etc. Thus it is very important to study money. Banking and financial markets are intermediaries that help provide a common platform, or a market place, for all individuals to inter act with each other. Banking and financial markets provide liquidity to the system and helps 2 individuals with exactly opposite needs meet on a common platform. Without an apt knowledge of the banking and financial markets, it is impossible to understand how changes around us would affect our wealth and in which way can we best utilize our wealth and help it grow and accumulate. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using financial intermediaries. Financial intermediaries help us by bringing together those entities with surplus funds and willingness to lend, with those with a shortage of funds and willingness to borrow. The benefits of such intermediation include; maturity and risk transformation, lesser transaction costs due to higher liquidity, better bargaining power due to alternative options etc. The function of financial intermediaries is to provide these advantages and make a profit while raising the overall efficiency of the economy. The disadvantage of financial intermediation is that such intermediation may be expensive on occasions. As seen in the recent economic crisis, financial intermediaries may also falter on exploiting structural loopholes in greed of higher profits in the short term while posing a threat to the economic stability in the long term. The given computer entry tells us that the Northwestern Energy company has issued bonds on March 15, 2001, with a principal value of $100,000, expiring in 20 years on March 15, 2021 and carrying an interest rate of 6% payable semi-annually. In the event of interest rates rising for new bonds issued in to the market for the same quality, it would imply that the bonds issued by Northwestern will be relatively expensive and thus less attractive than the newer bonds. Therefore, the value of the Bonds issued by Northwestern will have to fall to an extent that the yield on the bond becomes equal to the yield of the newer bonds issued. In making this inference we are assuming that the yield and interest rates are same. Friedmanà ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã‚ ¢s belief that when Fed lowers interest rates, they fall but do not stay lower for very long, reiterates his belief that in a free economy, the market always sets up at an equilibrium. Even though, there may be interventions by monetary authorities desired to accomplish certain goals and objectives, such intervention only leads to a temporary imbalance in the demand and supply attributes and over a longer period of time, the market resets itself to equilibrium. In the graph above, we assume that Dd is the initial money demand curve and Ss is the initial money supply curve. Thus, at equilibrium i* is the market determined interest rate and Q* the money supply and demand. Now, if the central bank authorities bring this interest rate down to say ia, a new but short lived equilibrium is formed due to the shift of the supply curve from Ss to Ssa. At this equilibrium, the demand curve has not yet responded to the change in Fed rates. Now as per Friedman, due to a lower interest rate, the liquidity in the market increases, thereby pushing the income of individuals northward. With higher level of incomes, inflation sets in due to a shift in the demand curve from Dd to Dda and the price levels begin to rise to offset the increase in income. Since inflation is a component of interest rates, the interest rates also rise proportionately in order to reset the market at another equilibrium where, in the example above, i* is the equilibrium interest rate and Q*a is the equilibrium money supply and demand. A company that has never received a bond rating will have to contact the rating agency, say Fitch, first. Once the agency is contacted, a credit analyst collates and gathers information required to determine risk to investors who might own or buy the bond. The kinds of information that are to be dispersed are background and history of the company/entity, industry trends, management vision/mission, experience, track record, and attitude towards risk, organization structure etc. He then analyzes the information on hand and develops a conclusion in committee on the appropriate rating. The analyst may also seek explanations and clarifications in to business procedures and audit some financial statements. After the rating is finalized, the agency monitors the security on an ongoing basis. In 2009, the Fed and the treasury were facing the most difficult times they have had to face since the great depression. On 19th March 2009, Fed decided to expand its balance sheet by a US$1,000,000,000,000. The Fed announced that it would inject up to $750 billion in Agency MBS that year. This was over and above an earlier commitment of $500 billion. Fed also announced the buying in to Agency bonds for $200 billion. It further declared that it would purchase up to $300 billion of longer dated Treasuries over the term. So, what was the fear behind such drastic measures? Answer is deflation. Earlier that year in January, Fed took the historic step of cutting the benchmark interest rate to as low as zero. They also called for greater government spending to help revive the economy. Such drastic measures were the result of the failure of Fed efforts like record rate cuts, emergency lending programs and backstops for debt markets, to halt the crisis.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Accidents Have Caused Major Explosion

Accidents Have Caused Major Explosion In the past few years there had been a steady increment in the usage of the risk assessment in the offshore production facilities. This is especially after the Piper Alpha disaster in 1988 and many other major accidents that killed many lives. Operators are showing an increasing awareness by reviewing the safety of their existing topside production facilities. The Piper Alpha accident provided adverse confirmation that the predictions of risk analyses regarding major accidents were certainly prudent. Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) is very useful in order to reduce the risks especially on the hydrocarbon releases from offshore topsides facilities. (Harmony, 1998) The accidents have caused major explosion and followed by some other minor explosions that release huge amount of hydrocarbons such as gas, liquid and 2-phase liquid. According to the investigation report that had been made after the accident, the main reason that causes the accident is the handover work made by two different shift personnel. Communication problem is one of the reasons of the tragedy. Initially the platform only produced crude oil. However, after a few years natural gas is also being produced. During the installation of the gas conversion equipment, the fire walls were not upgraded to the blast wall that causes a severe explosion throughout the disaster. Moreover, the pumping operation of oil and gas was continued even though the fire started to spread on the platform due to lack of professed authority that just witness the burning of the Piper (Taylor, Wallace, Ward, 1991). It was started from the two condensate injection pumps which are A and B. The day shift engineer forgot to inform the condition of pump A to the night shift engineer in which the pressure valve was removed for recalibration and recertification. There are about 106 recommendation has made for the future of safety offshore by the Cullen Report. All of the recommendations had been accepted and implemented by the offshore operators later then (Simon, 2012a). Petrobras Enchova Central Platform was listed in the major offshore accidents. This platform also listed as one of the worst and notable blowouts in the history of offshore oil platform. It is located in the Enchova Field, Brazil and operated by Petrobras. Two major incidents recorded in these fields which were on 16 August 1984 and 24 April 1988. The first accidents caused by blowout followed by explosion and fire. Most of the personnel were evacuated safely by chopper and lifeboat. Unfortunately, 42 workers died during the evacuation processed. The main reason that killed many lives during evacuation is because the failure of lowering mechanism of a lifeboat. The lifeboat was suspended and eventually fell 10-20m to the sea which killed 36 personnel. The other six workers were killed when they jumped from the platform to the sea at 30-40m height. (Simon, 2012b) The second accident occurred on 24 April 1988 which is four years later during the workover operations on the platform. One of the well that operated by the platform blew out and finally ignited that resulted in the destruction of the platform. Petrobras decided to drill two relief wells in 30 days time and eventually succeed in controlling the blowout (Maduro Reynolds, 1989). The workover well was performed in order to convert oil well to gas well. Then the blowout occurred during that converting process. The fire resulted from gas ignition last for 31 days. There was no loss of life recorded because the floating living quarters were separated from the platform during the blowout. The operator incurred a total loss because the extensive damage to the topside structure (Simon, 2012b). Ekofisk Bravo Platform is another type of platform that was listed in the top five worst blowout accidents in the oil and gas industry in which the volume of hydrocarbon released is about 202,381 barrels. This platform is operated by Philips Petroleum Company located at Ekofisk field in Norwegian continental shelf. The event of blowout was recorded on 22 April 1977, a few years after the discovery of this field in 1969. It was declared that the blowout cause the biggest oil spill in the North Sea. The blowout occurred during the workover of the production well. It was started when the production tubing was pulled out at 10000 feet depth. Then the blowout preventer (BOP) is not yet installed after removing Christmas tree prior to the production tubing pulling process. The downhole safety valve was malfunctioned because of improperly installed that cause well kick then resulted in well blowout that release large amount of hydrocarbon to the environment. There was no loss of life recorded as the evacuation job carried properly. Initially the total release calculated was 202,381 bbls by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. Then the oil was evaporated up to 40% of the initial release and a total spill estimated is lower than the initial amount. It was reported that there was no significant effect to the environment. The investigation to determine the root cause of the accident had been carried out. They found that the main reason of the blowout was caused by human errors. The human errors include inappropriate planning and well control, misjudgment on the job scope difficulty for instance ignores the proper installation documentation and equipment identification (Simon, 2012c). Bekok C platform that is operated by PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd. is one of the listed platform accidents in Malaysia that cause severe injuries to the workers. This platform is located 200km from the coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The major factor of the tragedy is because of the gas leaked that cause fire on the platform. Basically, the platform went through scheduled shutdown in order to plan maintenance activities during the accident (Bernama, 2010). There were about 108 personnel on the platform at that moment of incident and six of them were injured because of the fire. The fire just started after midnight and brought under control by the emergency response teams (ERT). The injured personnel were the one that on duty at that time and in the process to complete their shift. The six injured personnel suffered several burns on parts of their body including the face. The fire might be resulted from sparks that produced from one of the maintenance valves. The remaining 102 workers have been evacuated safely to the nearby platform (Chris, 2010). Another offshore accident in Malaysia is Tukau B platform located in Miris offshore. This platform is operated by PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd which is Malaysias National Oil Company. The fire occurred on 11 June 2012 which is the latest accident at an oil and gas facility recorded on offshore platform. It was reported that 16 workers were on the platform at that time of fire. Five of them (two PETRONAS employees and other three contractor staff were suffered first and second degree burn. There was no loss of life reported as other remaining workers were evacuated safely to the nearby platform, Tukau A living quarters. (Mohamad Abdullah, 2012) The fire resulted from the explosion at Tukau B oil drilling platform started to spread on the structure at 9.20am at the compressor skid. Fortunately they managed to put the fire under control within an hour that prevents the fire to spread over the platform. The personnel were doing some maintenance works on the platform at the time of fire. The human errors could be the reason of the explosion that cause fire and injured some of the workers. Most of the accidents occur were mainly cause by the engineering workers that do not have good understanding on the safety elements. Misjudgment on the job difficulty has been normal situation on the event of fire and explosion. Improper use of standard operating procedure for equipment always becomes major factor in platform accident. This is mainly occurring during the maintenance works that involve the operator and contractor staffs (Luin, 2012). The most recent incident that involves oil and gas industry in Malaysia is the fire and explosion of the oil tanker named Bunga Alpinia own by Malaysian International Shipping Company, MISC which occurred at 26 July 2012. This event of fire and explosion take place at Rancha-Rancha industrial zone, Pulau Enoe near Labuan. It was reported that the oil tanker was loading six tons of methanol at the PETRONAS Chemicals Methanol Sdn Bhd jetty when a small fire ignited during a thunderstorm. The fire started at 2.30am and resulted in at least three major explosions that shake the Labuan Island. Bunga Alpinia had 29 crews on board consisting 23 Malaysians and six Filipinos. The accident killed five workers; four of them were Malaysian and one Filipino as mentioned by MISC Company which is a subsidiary of PETRONAS. Another 24 workers were evacuated safely to onshore (Almeida, 2012). The fire and explosion just occurred nearby the PETRONAS Chemical Methanol plant that arise another concern if the flames from the tanker ignite the methanol silo. The effect might be severe which can cause enormous destruction to the surrounding area. Problem Statement According to Oil Gas UK Knowledge Centre, hydrocarbon release may contribute to major accidents as well as determine a key performance indicator of asset integrity management of offshore installations. A hydrocarbon can potentially release to atmosphere due to leakage from equipment, flanges, valves, pipe works and etc. Each of this equipment has their own release frequency. QRA study is very important in order to identify the most cost effective ways to reduce risks to people and to the production asset. It is also important for company to improve their understanding on the risks and hazard involved in its offshore operations (Hanson, Lewis, Walters, 1995). For Quantitative Risk Assessment study, the release frequency of each Isolatable Section needs to be calculated. The QRA is employed in order to size hazards and advantages gained from their concession. The QRA particularly calculates the overall risk and potential loss of life and the average individual risk of fatality. In order to determine the release frequency the installation type and location are the important parameters that should be considered. Objective The overall objective of these studies is to calculate the hydrocarbon release frequency for each isolatable section of offshore production facilities. In order to determine the release frequency, the isolatable section of the topsides production facilities needs to be identified at the early period of the research. The quantity of each of the process equipment needs to be determined in order to get the release frequency. The other objective is to utilize the raw and modify data of release frequencies from the risk assessment data directory (OGP Publications) in order to classify the release criteria by using the inventory released. Scope of the Research In this research, a typical unmanned platform is used as a subject of study. A complete offshore production facility will be divided into several sections in QRA study. The sections are known as Isolatable Section. The Isolatable Section consists of different type and sizes of equipment, flanges, valves, pipe works and etc. The research will identify method to calculate the release frequency of a given Isolatable Section of Offshore Production Facilities. All of the possible process equipment with various sizes is listed down to make the parts count easier. There are three types of release which are full releases, limited releases and zero pressure releases but in these studies full releases type will be used in order to determine the release frequency for each isolatable section. The parts count of process equipment with its specific sizes can be done by using the data that is provided in the Process and Instrumentation Diagram PID. Other than that, the volume of equipment on the topsides of offshore facilities also needs to be calculated by using the volume equation. Process Flow Diagram (PFD) is used in order to determine the volume of each of the process equipment. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Quantitative Risk Assessment 2.1.1 Definition According to C.M. Pietersen et al. (1991), Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) can be defined as a method to determine the risk in major offshore platform accidents. It is crucial to determine the release frequencies from process equipment in the event of failure so that the risk can be identified. P.J Corner et al. (1991) state that QRA can use many type of methods or model ranging from simple correlation to complex computer codes. The method of assessment includes the effect of releases such as fire and explosion models, the model for assessing the impact resulting from the fire and explosion and the probability of failures of the process equipment on the topsides platform. Based on R J Hanson et al. (1995), the QRA (computer based model) was implemented in order to evaluate the risk reduction measures. 2.1.2 History In order to improve safety on offshore platform, QRA was introduced after the tragic accident that killed many lives in the event of fire and explosion at Piper Alpha platform. Lord Cullen in his report of The Inquiry based on Piper Alpha Disaster had identified that QRA as a technique that provides a structured, objective and quantitative approach in order to have better understanding on the risks and ways to overcome or control them (Hanson et al., 1995). 2.2 Hydrocarbon Release Frequency 2.2.1 Type of Offshore Topsides Production Facility Offshore topsides production facilities investment is substantial in order to maximize the production. The main production facilities can encompass half of an offshore topsides platform area and half of the capital or installation cost. There are approximately 16 types of process equipment on the topsides of offshore installation facilities handling hydrocarbon that have potential to release hydrocarbon in the event of equipment failures based on the Risk Assessment OGP (2010). The process equipment include steel process pipe, flanges, manual and actuated valves, instrument connections, process (pressure) valves, centrifugal and reciprocating pumps, centrifugal and reciprocating compressors, heat exchangers (four different types), filters and pig traps (launchers/receivers). 2.2.2 Type of Releases According to the analysis of historic process release frequency data (Producers, 2010), releases can be divided into three different types which are full releases, limited releases and zero pressure releases. Full releases can be described as flow through the defined hole is consistent, starting at the normal operating pressure then continuing until controlled by emergency shutdown and blowdown. Limited releases can be classified as cases in which pressure is not zero but the quantity of releases are much less than from a full release. The main reason of these releases is because of the human intervention such as closing an inadvertently opened valve. Then it may cause by the failure from the system itself. Zero pressure releases can be defined as the cases where pressure inside the leaking equipment is virtually zero. This is because of the equipment has a normal operating pressure of zero. Releases can be classified as major, significant and minor based on the (Pratt, 2002) statement. Significant releases are those lying between major and minor releases. Release frequency of the major hydrocarbon release is higher compared to the significant and minor releases (Edmondson Hide, 1996). 2.2.3 Type of Hydrocarbon Releases Hydrocarbon releases have the highest risk on offshore platform that potentially cause loss of life (Hanson et al., 1995). According to Derek B Pratt (2002), the hydrocarbon release type can be classified into three which are gas, liquid and two phase hydrocarbon. Hydrocarbon such as diesel, methanol, hydraulic oil, lubricating oil and helicopter fuel were included. These types of hydrocarbon are termed as non-product hydrocarbon. (Hare, 2008) states that there are five types of hydrocarbon release which are gas, oil, non-process hydrocarbon, 2-phase hydrocarbon type and lastly condensate. 2.3 Inventory of Basic Data 2.3.1 Number of Decks on the Platform Basically there are three types of decks found in offshore platform which are cellar deck, main deck and helideck. Cellar deck is the lower part of the platform while main deck is the upper part of the platform. Helideck is installed on this main deck which commonly above the living quarters. In some platforms, there are four types of decks existed which are spider deck, cellar deck, main deck and helideck. Most of the time, all of the drilling or production facilities are placed or installed on the main deck such as power generator and water treatment while all of the manifolds and Christmas trees will be installed on the cellar deck. One of the significant issues in order to reassessment and requalification of an old platform is the wave-induced force on offshore platform decks. Platform may be subject to partial or even fully submerge in the event of severe storms due to seafloor sinking the cellar deck. The structural integrity of the platform will be obviously affected and is thus a very crucial issue of concern (Grà ¸nbech, Sterndorff, Grigorian, Jacobsen, 2001). 2.3.2 Accommodation Arrangement Living quarters are the crucial requirement for the safe operational and life support requirements for personnel in the offshore Oil and Gas Industry. The other key requirement in the design and build of offshore facilities is to provide functional spaces for optimum comfort of personnel. Providing a safe environment offshore is mandatory in this industry. The location of the living quarters on the platform is one of important parameters in personnel safety requirement. The findings presented to the Cullen report based on the past Piper Alpha disaster regarding on the risk reduction would be achieved whether by accommodating personnel on a nearby flotel (floating hotel) or on PDQ (production, drilling, quarters) platform. The advantage is that personnel are separated from fire and explosion hazards if there are accommodated on a nearby flotel but the disadvantage of exposing them to other hazards such as transportation and flotel capsize (E.F, 1993). According to the QRA made based on the Piper Alpha disaster, it can be concluded that safety can be improved by decreasing the number of personnel offshore or separating production and accommodation platforms linked by bridges. (Lewis Spouge, 1994) in their study also claimed that the risks depend mostly on the separation between the accommodation and the hydrocarbon inventories. 2.3.3 Location of Helideck Location of helideck also one of the important parameters in the offshore platform and should be taken into consideration in order to reduce the risks. The scope of study carried out by K.H Von Blohn et al. (1979) included different locations of helideck on platform, effect of a seaway on the wind velocity profile, effect of varying wind velocity on the turbulence level and air flow around modules without the helideck. Most of the helideck are located directly on top of the crew quarters structure (Blohn, Peterka, Cermak, Barnard, Ewald, 1979). Based on the wind tunnel tests made on the Maui B platform, the flow conditions over the helideck for all approach wind directions tested are improved if the original helideck shape is raised 2.5 m above the crew quarters. Different types of drilling rig or platform have different location of helideck for instance jack-up rig, submersible platform and drillship because they are different in sizes and water depth. The location of helideck also differs between fixed and unfixed structure (BOMEL Limited Burt, 2012). 2.3.4 Location of Process Equipment In order to ensure the safety of personnel working on the offshore platform the process equipment should be placed or installed at the right position where there is less tendency of injury during the event of emergency. In other words, accident can be prevented if the equipment had been engineered properly (Johnstone Curfew, 2011). Properly layout the facility on the platform is the first job in building a new facility. The equipment that needs to be installed should be listed out and a plot plan of the site must be obtained in order to plan equipment layout. It is started by placing the most hazardous items of equipment on the site. Some examples of hazardous items are venting system, flaring system, fire process equipment, engines and rotating equipment, separators, tanks and unfired vessels. According to J.E Johnstone et al. (2011), venting system should be positioned downwind of the facility in which the released gases will not risk the personnel life and platform area. Venting system must be placed where there are no or far from the source of ignition. The same goes to the flaring system. Fired process equipment such as heater treaters, heater or separator, glycol and amine reboiler should be placed away from the equipment that process or store flammable hydrocarbons. It is also should be located away from the potentially released type equipment such as vents and pig receivers. Pumps and compressors which are categories as engines and rotating equipment must be placed on the site to avoid damage from any possible hydrocarbon releases, ignition and noise. Liquid hydrocarbons may be released to the environment resulted from losing seals of pumps while compressors normally leak small amount of oil which might cause fire if there are source of ignition (Johnstone Curfew, 2011). 2.3.5 Location of Risers and Pipelines Risers and pipelines are frequently become one of the main risk contributor on an offshore platform. The most crucial safety goal is to minimize the potential leakage from a riser or pipeline. The impact and corrosion are the significant failure causes by risers and pipelines (Edmondson Hide, 1996). The location of riser and pipeline should be planned properly because of a limited space on platform in order to operate in a safe condition (Sarica Tengesdal, 2000). Moreover the congestion on the platform should be reduce in order to lower the risks (Majumder, Markanday, Anand, 1991). According to P.J Corner et al. (1996), the most important approach in QRA is the failure that will cause different in the holes sizes and leaks rate to the marine environment. The impact may result in rupture or destruction of the platform while corrosion may cause small holes on the riser or platform which can be repaired and not hazardous. It is also essential to anticipate the release duration in order to determine the significant effects. It might be the long duration release of medium size cause destruction compare to enormous release of very short duration. Some risers are installed outside of the shafts, leakage and explosion will occur if hit by ships (Larsen Engseth, 1978). 2.3.6 Location of Wellheads Wellhead is the equipment that installed on the surface of an oil and gas well that acts as a pressure seals and suspension point for casing string. Wellhead that is located at the production platform is called surface wellhead while if the wellhead is located below the water it is termed as subsea wellhead or mudline wellhead. Wellhead should be located properly on the platform because wellhead load includes all casing strings with cement weight, tubing strings weight, weight of wellhead itself and BOP equipment (Anderson, 1984). Meaning that wellhead carries massive loads and part of the platform weight. 2.3.7 Location of Any Drilling Activities Drilling operation is one of the most hazardous activities on the offshore platform. Many personnel are at risk because of the intensive labor work. This is because this operation involves in heavy lifts of many components, BOP stacks, collars and precisely miles of drill pipe. Additional risk will be encountered during exploration drilling especially on the shallow gas hazards and the ultra deepwater operations that potentially have high pressure and temperature (HPHT) wells. Harsh environment condition also need to be considered (E.F, 1993). The best location of any drilling activities is away from the living quarters in order to reduce the risks on personnel. This is for instance in the event of blowout, the personnel can be evacuated safely from the platform. The drilling operations should be separated from production in order to reduce the release frequency of reservoir fluids on the platform as well as reduce the population at risk. Blowout that can claim many lives also can be prevented if drilling and production carried out separately (E.F, 1993). 2.3.8 Transportation According to E.F et al. (1993), the risk to people working offshore start when they leave the shore and stop when they return onshore. The main transportation of the personnel (crew change) is by helicopter or boat. The use of QRA technique had made the risk become apparent because the future risk can be predicted, accidents to be anticipated and ways to overcome or prevent is considered by interpreting the past accident experiences (Lewis Spouge, 1994). The helicopter accident can be categorized into three major sections which are accidents in flight, accidents on take-off and accidents on landing while crew boat accident can be described in two categories which are fatalities in transit and fatalities in transfer. Helicopter crash is on the second ranking for causing of fatalities on UK Continental Shelf (UKCS) after hydrocarbon fire and explosion (Lewis Spouge, 1994). Based on transport risk study carried by JR Spouge et al. (1994), it can be concluded that transport risks are important. Transportation by using helicopter has higher risk if compared with crew boat. This is because the usage of helicopter is higher for crew change operation since the distant of onshore and platform is considered while crew boats indicate dissimilar problems in evaluating risk due to their great safety record. 2.4 Inventory of Materials That May Cause a Fire or Explosion 2.4.1 Inflammable, Combustible and Explosive Materials Inflammable, combustible and explosive materials are materials that are capable to cause fire and explosion. These types of materials should be placed or stored away from the fired process equipment, venting and flaring system in order to prevent any ignition from occurring. These materials must be located away from the living quarters to prevent severe injury to personnel on board in the event of fire and explosion. The blast or firewall has to be installed around these storage materials to reduce the impact of explosion. Properly handling method has to be done on these materials. 2.4.2 Medium of Materials Released There are many ways for materials release to the surrounding environment. One of medium of materials release is through cracks, splits or holes in the containment envelope. This medium is created from the degradation of the equipment such as corrosion, erosion and wears out. The releases of material to the atmosphere may be resulted from opening pathway that is provided by the opening of equipment that still containing hydrocarbon by personnel with intention (Pratt, 2002). 2.4.3 Types of Fire The event of fire and explosion are common in the oil and gas industry especially on the offshore oil and gas platform and drilling rigs (Heaviside, 1980). Every year many injuries and loss of life are recorded because of fire and explosion itself. Personnel are suffered from first to third degree burn which can cause severe injury as well as loss of life. Fire can be classified into four categories which are jet fire, flash fire, pool fire and fireball. Jet Fire Jet fire can be classified into two categories which are the fire that colliding against wall resulting in a diffuse flame and without collision. Immediate ignition will cause jet fire (Pietersen Engelhard, 1991). Jet fire also termed as spray fire. Diffusion flame is resulted from the combustion of a fuel that unceasingly released with significant momentum in a particular direction or direction. The releases of gaseous, flashing liquid and pure liquid inventories can cause jet fires (Executive, 2012). Flash Fire According to C.M Pietersen et al. (1991), in case of gases, delayed ignitions in open spaces will result in flash fire. A flash fire is a sudden, intense fire caused by ignition of a mixture of air and a dispersed flammable substance such as solid, flammable or combustible liquid or a flammable gas. It is described as high temperature, short duration and a rapidly moving flame front. Fireball Fireball can arises from the delayed ignition in enclosed containment that resulting in gas cloud explosion (Pietersen Engelhard, 1991). The gas cloud explosion together with fire will gives tremendous effect on the offshore platform such as destruction of platform. Fireball can cause severe injuries as well as loss of life to the personnel on board. Pool Fire Pool fire can be defined as the turbulent diffusion fire burning above a horizontal pool vaporizing hydrocarbon fuel where the fuel has zero or low momentum. Pool fires could be static which depends on where the pool is contained. Large amount of hydrocarbon inventories have the highest risk and likelihood for the arising of pool fire (Executive, 2012). 2.5 Identification of Initial Accidental Events 2.5.1 Release and Leakage of Hydrocarbon from Process Equipment Hydrocarbon releases is one of the main reasons that result in accident. The release of hydrocarbon from the process equipment may cause ignition followed by fire. Each of the process equipment has its own release rate and frequency. The release rate may be depends on the size and diameter of the equipment. The leakage of hydrocarbon from process equipment can lead to fire and explosion. Oil and gas can migrate to other areas of the platform in a split second and cause ignition that may destruct the platform as well as kill many lives. It is important to minimize the number of equipment and piping installation in order to reduce the failure rate. It is better to operate at low pressure if possible to lessen the leak. The equipment with high leak potential such as compressor is place in open ventilated area. Separation between process system from drilling systems, utilities and accommodation is made by using blast and firewalls (Comer Eades, 1991). 2.5.2 Failure of Utilities The failure of utilities such as electric power shutting down pumps, compressors or motor operated valves can result in overpressure. Overpressure can be defined as pressure build up over the set pressure of the primary relieving device. Overpressure can cause sudden rupture or leak of utilities. Loss of cooling system such as water and refrigeration can form hazardous situations (Johnstone Curfew, 2011). 2.5.3 Falling Loads According to E.F. Brandie (1993), falling loads or dropped objects will create an immediate hazard to offshore workers. It also has high potential to cause major accidents if falling on the process equipment. The object may be dr

Monday, August 19, 2019

The Anaconda Plan Essay example -- essays research papers

The Anaconda Plan At the onset of the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln met with his generals to devise a strategy by which the rebellious states of the Confederacy could be brought back into the Union. General Winfield Scott, commanding general of the Union army, proposed a plan of battle that became known as the Anaconda Plan. General Winfield Scott, commanding general of the Union Army From the Collections of The Mariners' Museum General Scott, a native Virginian, believed that the majority of Southerners desired a complete union with the United States. In order to restore the Union with as little bloodshed as possible, he favored a relatively nonaggressive policy. The primary strategy of Scott's plan was to create a complete naval blockade of the Southern states. Named for the South American snake that kills its prey by strangulation, Scott's plan was to strangle the South into submission by cutting its supply lines to the outside world. The plan was sound, but ambitious. For the plan to succeed, it would be necessary to blockade more than 3,500 miles of coast from Virginia to Mexico and up the Mississippi from New Orleans to New Madrid Bend. And the Anaconda Plan could only succeed over time: the South would not starve overnight, so patience was an essential part of Scott's strategy. Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy, USA From the Collections of The Mariners' Museum By adopting the Anaconda Plan, Lincoln ran the risk of committing diplomatic suicide. Sin...

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Alzheimers Disease Essay -- essays research papers fc

An Exploration of one of the Most Mysterious Diseases   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Alzheimer’s disease, named after Dr. Alois Alzheimer, is a disease that is on the rise in America and the rest of the world. People should learn as much as they want about this disease, because as you age, your chances of becoming an Alzheimer’s Disease, or AD, patient increases. It is estimated that approximately 3 percent of Americans between the ages of 65 and 74 have the illness, and more than half of all people over age 85 have the ailment.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  AD is a form of dementia, a disease, that according to the Alzheimer's Disease Education & Referral Center is defined as: â€Å"†¦a group of symptoms that are caused by changes in brain function. Dementia symptoms may include asking the same questions repeatedly; becoming lost in familiar places; being unable to follow directions; getting disoriented about time, people, and places; and neglecting personal safety, hygiene, and nutrition. People with dementia lose their abilities at different rates.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  It is not uncommon for AD patients to become lost and wander away from their homes, thus leading to a very disturbing and upsetting experience for family members.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Alzheimer’s can be diagnosed before age 65, although rare, and is caused by a mutation in 3 known genes. About 5 percent of those who are under 65 and possess the ailment have AD in their family history. Given that the symptoms of AD are caused by plaque in the brain, causing loss of nerve cells that help the body communicate with the brain, mutations to these genes; amyloid precursor protein, presenilin 1, and presenilin 2 cause a excessive production of certain proteins (primarily a B-42 form of amyloid protein), and therefore spark an excessive growth of plaque cells which are toxic to the neurons of the brain. For those cases of Alzheimer’s that occur after age 65, a genetic mutation has yet to be proven, although some may be linked, to the fact that a difference may cause an increased chance of developing the ailment. Whatever the case may be for patients over 65 years old, the disease and its symptoms are caused by neurofibrillary tangles of al myloid plaques. It is impossible for someone to test positive for Alzheimer’s Disease, because the only way to determine an affirmative case i... ...t one has it. Many scientists hypothesize that there is an inflammatory response in the brain when there is an extensive B-42 amassing. To slow or stop this, scientists theorize that the use of anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin, could delay the swelling in the brain. Also, as scientists have known that taking a multi-vitamin tablet each day is good for you, there has been recent research demonstrating that the use of antioxidants may protect neurons, not just the immune system and keeping the body healthy by providing vitamins and minerals. These special supplements protect the neurons from the effects of the accruing B-Amyloid that would likely cause the plaque that causes AD. Works Cited alzheimers.html Picture of Brain Cross Section Information on Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia Information on the biology of Alzheimer’s Disease Information about Treatments and the AD community Delaware Valley Veterans Hospital- Alzheimer’s Ward- Allowing me to enter the facility and communicate with AD patients, nurses, and care-takers.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Linguistic culture

When I finished read Laura Bohannan’s essay â€Å"Shakespeare in the Bush† I felt that I was smiling. Can you beat it: Elizabeth Bowen-Smith (who will became Laura Bohannan later), intelligent student of Oxford university, sits on the calabash, drinks beer and explain the story of Hamlet to group of tribesmen. Some of them are a very experienced, old person who knows things. It seems that Laura met very interesting company: they are bilingual (but their English is much worse than their native Tiv language (Tiv-Batu sub-group of the Bantoid branch of the Benue-Congo subdivision of Niger-Congo)), they know only own culture and believe that people in all world are the same. This concept of â€Å"universal understanding† brought her audience to idea that this young European girl (because all whites should be Europeans) do not remember this history exactly. She made a lot of mistakes and some details of Hamlet history were so strange for Tiv traditions that they were even fain to acknowledge that Europe is really another world. Bohannan told about Hamlet in very simple words and Tiv understood Hamlet plot, but very generally. Different cultural backgrounds not only make the Tiv and Bohannan have very different interpretations of Hamlet status (â€Å"son of chief†) or the general ideas of life and death. But the Tiv people interpreted several specific aspects of the story much differently than the modern Western culture. Almost from the beginning of Bohannan’s tale, tribe members interrupted to question and disagree with her about most of the key elements in the story. There was the appearance of Hamlet’s father’s ghost, Claudius’ marriage to Gertrude, the fact that Hamlet couldn’t marry Ophelia, Hamlet’s madness, Polonius’ death, Ophelia’s drowning death and the poison for after the final duel. The ghost of Hamlet’s father appeared in the castle to inform Hamlet of the truth about his death. The most of modern people could easily explain what is a ghost. The Tiv thought otherwise. The tribesmen scoffed at the notion that Hamlet's father is a ghost because they don't believe that any individual part of human personality survives after death. Tiv culture believes in witches and witchcraft, and then Hamlet’s father image must have been a zombie sent by witches as an omen. I like this passage from Bohannan’s essay: â€Å"The old men muttered: such omens were matters for chiefs and elders, not for youngsters; no good could come of going behind a chief's back; clearly Horatio was not a man who knew things† (Bohannan). It seems that witches and their magic power were reality for Tiv people. You know that their religious beliefs were centered around the concept of akombo, defined as magical forces and their emblems. Between concepts of â€Å"ghost† and â€Å"akombo† we have intercultural gap. These words cannot be translated to other language without loosing some sense. Any translation is approximation only. For full understanding people should be members of certain society. Let’s go on. In the story of Hamlet, Hamlet’s uncle, Claudius, marries Hamlet’s mother, Gertrude. This marriage was only two months after Claudius’ brother, the King, was killed. The modern Western culture feels that this marriage was incestuous. It also took place too soon after the death of her husband. The Tiv, however, found no problem with it. It was a custom for the natives for the brother of a deceased man to marry his wife. This way, the fields could be taken care of and the farms could be managed. Another detail: one of the younger Tiv men asked Laura who had married the other wives of the â€Å"dead chief† (King). When she told that the King had only one wife they were surprised. â€Å"But a chief must have many wives! How else can he brew beer and prepare food for all his guests?† (Bohannan). Laura explanation about European tradition to have only one wife and to use servants for homework (and especially mentioning taxes) makes Tiv men to adduce an argument: â€Å"It was better for a chief to have many wives and sons who would help him hoe his farms and feed his people; then everyone loved the chief who gave much and took nothing† (Bohannan). As you remember, in the Shakespeare’s play, Hamlet could not marry his true love, Ophelia, because he was royalty and she a commoner. The Tiv disagreed with this also. They felt that the marriage should be permitted because since Hamlet was royalty, then he could shower Ophelia’s father, Polonius, with gifts and money. This seemed to be very rational to the Tiv, although it seems to be an odd to the modern Western culture. Since Hamlet was not permitted to marry Ophelia, he went mad. In the western tradition the positive imaging of love madness appeared probably in troubadours’ songs, probably in more ancient times. But for African tribe it was impossible to attribute madness to unhappy love affair. The Tiv felt that Hamlet’s madness was attributed to more serious cause – to witchcraft. They said her that â€Å"only witchcraft can make anyone mad, unless, of course, one sees the beings that lurk in the forest† (Bohannan). Laura did the best to explain relations between Hamlet, his uncle and his mother. These episodes of the play were absolutely unclear for Tiv people. They had several arguments for their position. Hamlet scolded his mother for her sin but man should never scold his mother. Hamlet wanted to kill Claudius who killed his father but nobody can kill or attempt to kill his elders (in Tiv traditions). Tiv men said Hamlet should have contacted his father’s friends to avenge the murder of King but do not try and avenge the murder himself. I found no Tiv reactions (and no explanation by Laura) to the moment when Hamlet went to kill Claudius but found him praying. He did not kill him because he believed that killing Claudius while in prayer would send Claudius’s soul to heaven. We know that Tiv do not believe in the beyond. So this motive should not be clear for them. Laura missed this episode. May be she felt that she had no chances to explain this for her audience? She also did not tell about Hamlet’s words about Polonius’ murder â€Å"Heaven hath pleased it so / To punish me with this, and this with me† (Hamlet, III.iv.157–158) and about Polonius’ body â€Å"The body is with the king, but the king is not with the body† (Hamlet IV.ii.25–26). When Hamlet killed Polonius, Ophelia’s father, she was so distraught after hearing about this that she committed suicide by drowning herself. The Tiv were strongly opposed to this. They felt that only witches could make someone drown because water alone cannot hurt someone. â€Å"It is merely something one drinks and bathes in† (Bohannan). They understood that Ophelia’s brother, Laertes, killed her to sell her to the witches because he ran out of money. Also, at Ophelia’s funeral, Laertes jumped into her grave to say his last goodbye. Hamlet then jumped into the grave to say his last goodbye, also. The Tiv thought that Laertes was trying to steal the body so he could sell it to the witches. Since Hamlet jumped in, then he saved Ophelia’s body from being sold. They felt that Laertes wanted to kill Hamlet because he prevented him from selling Ophelia’s body. And I like Tiv explanation very much: â€Å"Hamlet prevented him, because the chief's heir, like a chief, does not wish any other man to grow rich and powerful.† (Bohannan) About understanding the duel between Hamlet and Laertes. King Claudius gave Laertes a poisoned rapier (probably Laura translated it as â€Å"machete†) so that Hamlet would die even if he was just scratched by the sword. Laertes has his sword poisoned in an effort to do Hamlet in once and for all. Claudius wanted Hamlet dead because he knew the truth about his father’s death. Just in case Hamlet survived the battle, a glass of poisoned wine was waiting for the victor. The wine unfortunately fell into the wrong hands, and Hamlet’s mother drank it and died. The modern Western culture believes that the wine was intended for Hamlet in case he survived the duel. The Tiv believe otherwise. They felt that the wine was intended for the victor of the match, either Hamlet or Laertes. They thought that it would be used to kill Hamlet because he knew true about the murder of his father, or it would be used to kill Laertes so no one would know about the conspiracy between him and Claudius to kill Hamlet. I think that the main point of Bohannan’s essay was to illustrate that different cultures interpret things differently. What we accept is influenced by our own cultural and linguistic values. Both interpretations of Hamlet are correct according to the cultural values of the two different cultures. (May be Tiv opinion is more correct because they proposed for Laura to tell them some more stories of her country. They said â€Å"We, who are elders, will instruct you in their true meaning, so that when you return to your own land your elders will see that you have not been sitting in the bush, but among those who know things and who have taught you wisdom.† (Bohannan)) It seems that the author intentions is not a matter. If our interpretation is different than that of the author, but the story still influenced our life, then that is all that matters. Word is just symbol and everyone can understand it how he can. But if you want to communicate with other people you should learn their culture and to speak their language. References: Bohannan, Laura (1971), from Conformity and Conflict: Readings in Cultural Anthropology, eds. James P. Spradley and David W. McCurdy Boston: Little Brown and Company. Ethnographic Atlas of the Center of Social Anthropology and Computing. University of Kent at Canterbury William Shakespeare. Hamlet The Oxford Shakespeare.1914   

Friday, August 16, 2019

Ethical Dilemma in Glengarry Glen Ross

Nietzsche’s claim that God is dead arouses interesting questions not only on what or who killed God but also on how human society, devoid of the long-held comfort of the polarity of ethical and moral grounds, would formulate judgements of what is real, good, or beautiful in their lives and in the world. The moral and ethical contradiction of a world where Truth does not exist is shown in the movie Glengarry Glen Rose which is an exploration of the motivations and impetus of individuals in a society where the duality good and evil have ceased to become the standards.Arguably, the film portrays the ethical dilemma in a postmodern world, notably posed by Nietzsche, who observed that the demise of the notion of absolute Truth is a double-edged sword for society. This is because the lack of clearcut and universally held concepts of what is right or wrong, while at first seems to connote freedom,   ultimately leaves a void that leads to human despair and nihilistic feelings.Adapte d for the big screen from a play written by the movie’s director David Mamet (1992), Glengarry Glen Ross follows two days in the lives of four real estate agents who face a bleak future if they do not close a deal soon. These characters, played by a veteran and brilliant cast which includes Al Pacino (Ricky Roma), Jack Lemmon (Shelley Levene), Ed Harris (Dave Moss), and Alan Arkin (George Aaronow), are told point blank by company representative Blake (Alec Baldwin) that the company will fire every salesman except for the top two within one week.The agents, desperate to retain their jobs and continue to earn a living, commit actions that raise questions and at the same time comments on how far human beings in today’s society would go to preserve themselves and attain their materialistic dreams. In a couple of days, the characters become involved in a series of events that show how human culture has tremendously suffered from the lack of ethical and moral considerations. Apart from capturing the apparent decay in human culture, the film is particularly concerned about the motives and assumptions that drive each sales agent’s actions and how these motives often result in clashing interests. This is evident in how the themes of truth, status, and identity are tackled based on the feelings, thoughts, and actions of the characters in the film. For instance, Blake’s character as a ruthless and unfeeling company representative is clearly intended to parody the attitude of big business when it comes to ensuring a healthy bottom line, which is clearly against the interest of its workers.On the other hand, these workers—or salespeople—are depicted as similar to Blake himself in terms of cruelty and lack of humanity. Ricky Roma, for instance, is later shown to be a heartless soul who takes advantage of the weaknesses of others to advance his objectives. Shelley Levene likewise resorts to thievery in order to close a sale and exact vengeance on his perceived enemies. In the end, Blake’s character with its apparent inhumanity becomes less despicable as the frailties and weaknesses of other characters are exposed. Ironically, the audience is led to feel pity for such human weakness instead of being led to feel righteous. This is because the film attempts to evoke empathy in its viewers for characters who are, alas, as human as the viewers are and whose justifications for â€Å"wrongdoing† resonate with the audience.Arguably, the narrative of the movie itself is a statement against the ethics—or the lack of it—of the four real estate agents. In this sense, Glengarry Glen Ross delivers a stinging critique of how society’s sense of ethics and even the sense of morality have been replaced by materialistic desires. The story of the four salesmen, desperate and â€Å"immoral,† mirrors the realities faced by individuals in their quest for personal success and a higher social st atus and how this quest, ironically, often results to the further debasement of the humanity in the individual.The film, in fact, is full of such play at irony that depicts how people’s worth are not judged by society based on how â€Å"good† they live their lives but on the number of material things they possess. In this social order, humans are segregated by their class, ethnic identity, and gender which determine their ability or their eligibility for access to basic and higher needs. The film’s narrative itself, which revolves around real estate agents trying to sell dirt in its figurative and literal meaning, alludes to the way in which humans are not anymore concerned with telling the truth or with earning a living through honest ways or at least, without causing the ruin of others. Apparently, today’s world has gone beyond being immoral or corrupted to being amoral or lacking in moral standards itself.Thus, the ethical dilemma raised by the film re flects Nietzsche’s argument on the death of God, referring to the demise of society’s dualist notion of good or evil. With this death, everything that humans have come to believe in becomes subject to doubt as truth falters in its absolute hold on consciousness. In this society, even the realities of human experience—the entire spectrum of feelings and thoughts—can be questioned and examined for their validity. Human acts are therefore defined not by their conformity with accepted norms or intrinsic values but by the circumstance surrounding them. This circumstance, in turn, becomes the standard by which an act becomes socially acceptable.In Glengarry Glen Ross, the death of universal values and norms for what is good or evil meant that ethical considerations were dispensable and were useful only when the need arises. Ricky Roma’s character, for instance, engages in a monologue—which is later revealed to be a sales pitch—that shows ho w society and individuals have suspended all forms of judgement in favor of individuality. Accordingly, Roma’s speech, which deals with stealing, cheating, and even pedophilia in a nonchalant manner, is a tell-tale sign of the central argument made in the film: that the death of absolute Truth has entailed the death of things once cherished by humans such as the concept of love and goodness.According to Nietzsche, this has created a void in individuals who felt lost without the ethical values and concept of morality that served to anchor their lives. Instead, these ethical ideals such as Truth, were replaced by the notion that there was a multiplicity of truth depending on how these benefitted society or the individual. Ultimately, however, Nietzsche points out that this loss of a sense of ethics and morality also leads, for many individuals, to lose their sense of meaning and to despair. Thus, loneliness and desperation is pervasive in Glengarry Glen Ross; for how could men engaged in crafting lies to their fellow humans in order to earn a living be able to live truly meaningful lives?It is therefore in portraying the ruthless and callous ways with which human beings act in a system dominated by materialistic notions of success and happiness, that Glengarry Glen Ross succeeds at brutally dissecting individual motivations and actions based on Nietzsche’s philosophy. Consequently, the film is able to provoke retrospection on what has become a reality for many individuals in a materialistic society, and to evoke the decision of whether this is a reality that is worth maintaining for the long term or one that needs to be transformed and changed to affirm the meaning of human life.Work Cited:Glengarry Glen Ross. Dir. David Mamet. Perf. Jack Lemmon, Al Pacino, Ed Harris, Alec Baldwin, Alan Arkin, and Kevin Spacey. New Line Cinema, 1992.

Cultural Baggage Essay

In the essay, â€Å"Cultural Baggage† by Barbara Ehrenreich believed that you do not have to be the religion or culture you were raised with. Ehrenreich believed that everyone was their own person and could be who they want to be. She was apart of her own culture called â€Å"nothing† culture, that meant she didn’t follow any of the cultural acts that her family would. She believe she could do whatever she wanted even if it wasn’t like her culture. I think she was right with everything she said in this essay. I believe everyone should have their own beliefs and do things the way they want to do them. Because in life once you 18, you are able to do whatever you want without your parents permission. Her mother, grandmother, and great grandmother referred to the family as â€Å"nothing†. Her mother always told her to try new things because they all ate different kinds of foods and did what other ethnicities did. She didn’t believe in a certain type of culture. Close to the end of the essay, she asked her children if they felt any ethnic or religious identity. The children said ‘none† which made her very proud to hear that her children picked up on their own tradition to think for themselves and hoped for them to carry it on. The author believes that people today have a problem.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

A Civilized Society

A Civilized Society What is the meaning of a society? A historian might say a society is a group of people living in an ordered community that has a hierarchy. An adult might say that a society is a community of people that have certain jobs and a community that has schools for their children to go to. A child might not even know what the meaning of society is. Their answers differ because there is not a book written in history that clearly defines what a society is. But when â€Å"society† is narrowed down into â€Å"civilized† society, it is here that agreements are distinguished.Most people agree that the time and place they live in at this present moment is civilized, even though spirits are still believed in. This also means that time periods that are not considered â€Å"civilized† in today’s terms, are considered civilized to the people living in that time period. In the book Beowulf, a book written in the seventh or eight century by an anonymous au thor, there are two societies, the Danes, who reside in Denmark, and the Geats, who reside in southern Sweden.This book is named after a person; not surprisingly, this person is named Beowulf, a Geat who later becomes the king of the Geats. The Anglo-Saxon society in the book Beowulf is civilized because they believe in monsters and their leaders and group members have clear expectations. One might be surprised that a civilized society believes in monsters, however, even societies today believe in monsters through television. Societies today create horror movies purely for entertainment; however, it is a known fact that the monsters in the horror movies are not real.On that note, the anonymous author of Beowulf may have written the book purely for the entertainment of his people, all the while knowing that monsters do not exist, after all, it is probably the closest thing his society has to watching a horror movie. Grendel, the first monster Beowulf fights, is â€Å"conceived by a pair of those monsters born of Cain (105-106). † This is physically impossible because Cain is a human and Grendel is an actual monster in the book.Another fact that Beowulf was written for entertainment purposes is the fact that the author uses suspension of disbelief, meaning that the readers believe things that are impossible in real for the sake of enjoying the book. For example, â€Å"[Beowulf] sank through the waves†¦(1495)† â€Å"for hours†¦(1495)† to fight Grendel’s mother, â€Å"the mighty water witch (1519). † This is an example of suspension of disbelief because it is physically impossible for a human to swim under water for hours without breathing.The Anglo-Saxon society is a civilized society because while today’s society creates horror movies for entertainment, the author creates the book, Beowulf, for the entertainment of his people. As stated above, a society is a community of people that have certain jobs they must perform. This definition of a society is a factor of what a civilized society is. In Anglo-Saxon culture, a leader and his comitatus have clear expectations. In today’s society, a leader leads the country and commands his people through the office of the prime minister.However, a leader in Anglo-Saxon culture does a little more than leading his country and commanding his people. In the book, Beowulf, there are two main leaders: Hrothgar (a Danish king) and Beowulf. These two leaders have the responsibility of bringing glory for their country. When Hrothgar took the throne after his father, he â€Å"led the Danes to such glory that comrades and kinsmen swore by his sword (65-66). † Beowulf brings glory to his country by killing Grendel, the beast that has been haunting Herot for a long time, and by killing Grendel’s mother, â€Å"the mighty water witch (1519). Then when Beowulf becomes the king of Geatland, he â€Å"†¦held it long and well (2208). †A s a leader has responsibilities, group members also have their responsibilities. In today’s society, they are responsible of helping each other, but sometimes they do not always carry out the task. However, a comitatus in Anglo-Saxon society have the responsibility of helping the leader when he needs help. There was only one comitatus in Beowulf and they are Beowulf’s men. Beowulf’s comitatus are by his side during his three battles. However, Beowulf’s comitatus was readily available to help him in one out of the three battles.During the battle with Grendel, â€Å"all of Beowulf’s/Band had jumped from their beds, ancestral/Swords raised and ready†¦(795-796). † This is only battle that Beowulf’s comitatus is readily available in to help. During Beowulf’s battle with Grendel’s mother, the Danes left the swamp thinking Beowulf had died, but â€Å"the Geats stayed, sat sadly, watching,/Imagining they saw their lord but not believing/ They would ever see him again(1602-1603). † It is here that we start to see that the role of the comitatus start to change because the comitatus are at shore while Beowulf was under water, so, if Beowulf eeded their help, they would not be able to help him. In Beowulf’s last battle, the battle against the dragon, â€Å"none of his comrades/ Came to him, helped him (2596-2597)† when Beowulf could not fight the dragon alone, they also ran away for their lives. At this point in the story, the role of a comitatus is no more. The Anglo-Saxon society is civilized only when the leaders and team members, the comitatus, carry out responsibilities. The Anglo-Saxon society is civilized because they believe in monsters through stories, and their leaders and comitatus have responsibilities, although sometimes the comitatus do not perform their responsibility.It is because they do not perform their duty in the battle with the dragon that the age of warriors end s. One can argue that the age of warriors is a civilized time period, however, when the comitatus ran away from the battle, it is there that signs of an uncivilized civilization is seen. Therefore, it can be said that â€Å"now the giving of swords, of golden/ Rings and rich estates, is over,/ Ended for you and everyone who shares/ Your blood: when the brave Geats hear/ How you bolted and ran none of your race/ Will have anything left but their lives(2884-2888). †