Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Body language (Dancing) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Body language (Dancing) - Essay Example Sometimes the performers also do the ‘splits’ in it. It is a kind of sensual dance where the performer is usually a female displaying her skills through various dance moves. It is usually performed with a typical reggae-styled beat playing in the back ground. This depicts bolder female attitude and it represents the 21st century. All in all, it is not a typical delicate feminine dance (Evans, 2006). Here in this picture below the female performer is doing a very bold move by swinging her hair. It could probably represent female liberty. In this pose, she is shown sitting on the floor on all fours. History tells us that women have never been this wild in their dances. As it can be seen from the picture, the performer is shaking her hair while on the floor, this represents very bold body language. Such kinds of dance moves aren’t expected of females, that is why it comes as a shock to new watchers and immediately grabs their attention. The dance moves are rough, wil d and flamboyant. It shows the opposite side of the female gender, opposite to the delicate and submissive side. There are many dances which go a long way back in the history, for instance the belly dance is quite famous in the Middle East and has become a symbol of the Arab culture. It is also typical to the females and represents cultural values. It is not as bold as ‘Dutty Wine’ but it expresses the attraction of a female body. Most famous dance steps require swift and vibrating hip motions and very delicate and synchronized movements of hands and wrists. The body language of this dance is very simple and elegant. Even though there are male belly dancers but it feels more natural when female dancers perform it, it is more natural to female muscle and bone structure. Here is a picture of a belly dancer expressing the elegance of a female body (belly-dance, 2011). The picture above shows a belly dancer posing a crane like stance

Monday, October 28, 2019

Othello Essay Example for Free

Othello Essay In the play Othello written by Shakespeare, the issue of racism is addressed. Othello, the protagonist of the play, is African American or black. â€Å"According to Lois Whitney, many of Othello’s specific attributes probably derive from Shakespeare’s reading of Leo Africanus, whose Geographical Historie of Africa which was translated and published in London in 1600†(Berry, 1990). Many critics have different views on this. â€Å"If Shakespeare depended upon Leo Africanus for such details, he must have been much more interested in racial psychology than critics such as Bradley or Heilman suggest†(Berry, 1990). One of the most prominent features of this Shakespeare play is the numerous references to Othellos skin color made by multiple characters however some critics tend to ignore or underplay the issue of Othello’s race. Many critics have different views and arguments on Othello’s skin color. â€Å"A. C. Bradley, fro example, asserts that in regards to the essentials of his character Othello’s race is unimportant, and that Shakespeare would have laughed if anyone had congratulated him on the accuracy of his racial psychology† (Skura 2008). Others differ and believe Othello’s race was important. â€Å"Laurence Lemer calls Othello the story of a barbarian who relapses and concludes that Shakespeare suffered from colour prejudice† (Berry, 1990). Throughout the play Othello is referred to as a Moor. Moor is a term meaning a descent from Africa. â€Å"Harold Clarke Goddard argues that Othello is neither a Negro nor a Moor but any many who is more beautiful within than he is without† (Skura, 2008). Some critics even put the audience of the play into consideration. The potential impact of his physical appearance upon audiences is suggested by Charles Lamb’s frank admission that although he could find Othello admirable in the reading he was only repelled by the figure of a coal-black Moor on stage, he concluded that the play should rather be read and not seen† (Berry, 1990). Many critics have tended to ignore or underplay the issue of Othello’s skin color, but these select critics have not. Along with critics making references to Othello’s race, many characters in the play do as well. The characters that are most racist refer to Othello by his real name less than the people who are least racist. â€Å"Othello’s blackness is not only a mark of his physical alienation but a symbol, to which every character in the play himself included must respond† (Berry, 1990). Othello does not refer to himself as African but rather as an exotic Venetian. Other characters do not see Othello as that. Many characters call Othello numerous names other than his real one. â€Å"For Iago Othello is an old black ram, the devil, and a barbary horse† (Berry, 1990). Many see Othello’s blackness as a symbol of ugliness, bestiality, treachery, and demonic. None of those words describe how Othello really is. Those words are the stereotypical definition of what a black man is. This stereotypical definition puts Othello is a predicament and makes his acceptance in the Venetian society difficult. â€Å"Once such critics conclude that Othello is not a stereotype, he tends to lose his individuality as a Moor and to become a representative of humanity† (Berry, 1990). The stereotypical image of a black man plays an important role in the play’s ending. Since this play is a tragedy and Othello is a tragic hero, his blackness does play a role in that. A tragic hero is the protagonist in a tragedy. This play is a tragedy considering Othello commits murder and ultimately takes his own life. â€Å"Othello’s Africanness is crucial to his tragedy not because of what he is, innately or culturally but because of how he is perceived by others and himself† (Skura, 2008). If it wasn’t for Othello being black, the play may have had a different outcome. Throughout the play, Othello sees himself either as an exotic Venetian, a convert in the fullest sense, capable of complete assimilation, or he sees himself as a barbarian, worthy of destruction† (Berry, 1990). In the play Othello was worthy of destruction. It was the racism and hatred that drove him to it. If the other characters weren’t so judgmental about his skin color, the play would have ended very differently. â€Å"His failure to break free of this constricting framework, to achieve a true sense of personal identity, is one of the play’s most powerful sources of tragic feeling† (Berry, 1990). With all the commotion over Othello’s race, it really didn’t give him a chance to be himself. By him being black, it makes him feel less accepted into his society. â€Å"Othello attempts to shape an image of himself that will win acceptance in Venice† (Berry, 1990). Critics also even see how Othello’s identity is altered by the constant racial tension against him in the play. â€Å"Stephen Greenblatt argues, Othello’s identity depends upon a constant performance of his story, a loss of his own origins, an embrace and perpetual reiteration of the norms of another culture† (Greenblatt, 1990). All of this racism in the play causes Othello some serious anxiety. Anxiety is a condition that can drive an individual to do things that are out of character for them. â€Å"He cannot probe the real cause of his anxiety because to do so would be utterly destructive, leaving him with only two options: to embrace his blackness and hurl its beauty and power in the face of his enemies, as does Aaron in Titus Andronicus, or to internalize their image of him and yield to self-loathing† (Berry, 1990). Othello doesn’t really do either in the play. He let others put thoughts into his head about his wife cheating on him with another man, which led to a murder scene where he killed his wife and in the end took his own life too. â€Å"His immediate reaction to the murder thus reflects his divided image of himself: he is either doomed like all great men or destroyed by his own blackness† (Skura, 2008). Based on the evidence in the play, Othello is definitely destroyed by his own blackness. His blackness is what drove him to commit the murder and kill himself. In conclusion, Othello’s skin color is central to the play. â€Å"It is important not merely because Shakespeare portrays Othello as a Moor or because racial tension and anxiety pervade the atmosphere of Venetian society, affecting Othello’s relationship with every character and increasing his susceptibility to Iago’s appeal; it is important because Othello himself in his aspirations towards assimilation and anxieties about his blackness, internalizes a false dichotomy that can only dehumanize him† (Berry, 1990). This play does give the stereotype of black people a negative name. Many critics argue what role his race played in the play. Some think it was really important while others argue it wasn’t important at all. One of the most prominent features of this Shakespeare play is the numerous references to Othellos skin color made by multiple characters however some critics tend to ignore or underplay the issue of Othello’s race.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Experiencing Four Major World Religions First Hand Essay -- Islam, B

The nine-sided building and the surrounding gardens give the impression of the world view of the Baha’i faith. A component of the Baha’i world view is that all religions come from a common source. The site conveyed that unity among all religions and people is an additional view of the Baha’i. The arrangement of the house of worship, and the gardens conveyed the idea of unity. The nine sides of the house of worship, and the surrounding gardens represent that all people no matter their religion, race, or gender are welcome at this site to practice their religion. Furthermore, it also gave the impression of the view of all religions having a common source, God. Specifically, the house of worship could represent God, and the nine sides, may represent the nine major world religions, or the idea that all people are united through God. In addition, the house of worship contains symbols on the pillars of the structure. These symbols are of the nine major world religions, for example; symbols include the Christian cross, Judaism Star of David, and the nine-pointed star, which is the symbol of the Baha’i faith. These symbols on the pillars represent unity among all religions, and the idea that all the religions come from a common source, God. Information provided in the handout, video, and by the representative was quite similar to the impression given by the site itself. The representative of the Baha’i faith specifically talked about how all religions have a common source. The video, handout, and the representative explained that God revealed himself in different manifestations in different time periods. God gave the teachings for a certain time period, and then when a new time period came God revealed himself as a different manifestat... ...gion. One thing that I did not know about was the artifact with a staircase and raised platform. According to Gardner’s Art through the Ages Non-Western Perspective by Fred Kleiner, this structure is called a minbar, and it serves as a pulpit for the imam to stand on, and this is where he would speak. An imam is the leader of prayer according to Living Religions by Mary Pat Fisher. Having the opportunity to visit four different religious sights resulted in gaining new insight. However, some of the information presented was similar to my previous understandings of the religions. It was interesting to hear followers of the different religions speak about their beliefs. Overall, visiting the Buddhist temple, Sikh Religious Society, Turkish Society of Chicago, and The Baha’i House of Worship made me reconsider my previous thoughts about each of the religions.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

“Khalil Gibran poem ‘a lover’s call”

Khalil Gibran a major pioneer of modern Arabic literature, as the best selling American poet of the twentieth century, and as a Middle Eastern modernist whose intellectual life is documented in meticulous detail. He was an Arab who wrote for the most part in Arabic. It was not until his thirties that he ventured to write for publication in English, and even then he seems often to have written first in Arabic and then translated his story or poem into English.Gibran poem ‘A Lover’s Call’, narrates the plight of a lover separated from his beloved. According to him, his lady love posses’ ethereal qualities of an angel. The poet mentions that they have been separated from each other on this earth for earthly reasons. They have parted a long time ago but the lover remembers her as if it was yesterday. He is worn out with his unrequited love for his dear lady. He remembers their time together and craves for her love, affection and companionship.The tone of the po em is sad and serious and above all passionate. The words of the lover in the poem are the cry from his very soul. His words also show the depth of his love for his dear lady. The language is simple, colloquial language and avoided the complex language and metres of traditional Arabic poetry. Gibran is primarily a painter and writes like he is painting. His images have visual qualities and touch the heart at a pre-rational level. He used the flamboyant rhetoric acceptable to Arabic canons of taste, not the cool, detached style of modern American poetry.Many critics think that Gibran’s poetic genius predominantly lies in the use of metaphor. Gibran indeed creates beautiful images that are charged with emotions and that expand the reader’s vision and imagination. There are many vivid images in the poem. The poet uses the image of ‘a mother’, god’s spirit, ‘companion of his soul’, ‘other self’ to compare his belovedHe is also a poet prophet. An emotional strobe designed by him, light momentarily illuminates an aspect of our experience, leaving us with a picture burned onto our emotional retinas. Thereafter, we see that aspect of our experience with different eyes. What we do get from his writings is the extraordinary force of Gibran's moral seriousness turned on various aspects of life.The poem ‘A Lover’s Call’, gives us a glimpse of the love which is above the social bonding. Gibran is an advocate of romantic love against the oppression of society. The lady love of the lover in the poem is separated from him due to earthly barriers and he knows that they may not unite on this earth. But there love is greater than any earthly bonding. Their love is the joining of two souls and after death, together they will reach God.In the poem, ‘A Lover’s Call’, a lover calls his beloved and conveys his love and sorrow through the breeze in the air, through the spirits in the ai r and through the angels. The poem starts with the question: ‘Where are you, my beloved?’This line suggests that the lover is separated from his lover. As the poem proceeds we realize that they have been parted from each other for an indefinite period of time.Next the man wonders where she can be at that hour. In the first eight lines he says, she can be in the garden watering the plants, which look upon her as a mother because by watering the plant and taking care of it she is performing the role of a mother. She can also be in her chamber, her private room. She is the embodiment of virtue but in attaining this position she has sacrificed the lover’s heart and soul. Or she is reading books to gain human knowledge when she is replete with divine wisdom.In the next eight lines he compares her to the companion of his soul. Their love is spiritual love, which is characterized by the union of two souls. He wonders if she is in the temple praying to the gods or she is in the field calling nature which is a refuge of her dreams. May be she is with the poor people in their hut consoling with encouraging words. She has a good heart so she may also give them money so that they can meet their needs. He compares his lady love to God’s spirit. She has the essence of God and so she is everywhere. She is stronger than the ages as she is God’s spirit. She will remain for ever.In the proceeding lines, the lover retrospects the memorable moments in his past. He remembers the day he met his dear lady and the time which he has spend with her. He addresses her and asks if she remembers the day they met for the first time. It is noteworthy that his lady is not physically present in from of him. It can be inferred that the conversation is taking place between their spirits. He remembers that the radiance of her spirit surrounded them. He farther says that the angels of love moved around them and praised the activities of their souls. As if the God wanted them to fall in love.He recollects their sitting in the shade of the branches which hid them from the glances of passer- by.   The branches sheltered them from humanity ‘as the ribs in the body protect the secret of the heart from injury‘. He also remembers the long stretch of time they have spend together walking along side each other in the forest. They walked hand in hand on the trails of the forest and they heads leaning towards each other. Probably their head was leaning against each other as they were engrossed in conversation or they were totally involved in looking at each other. They were totally lost in each other and were unaware of the world around them.The lover in the consecutive lines of the poem tells not only of spiritual love but also of physical love. He wants his beloved to remember the hour he said goodbye to her and the maritime kiss she placed on his lips. By ‘maritime kiss’, he may mean that probably he was taking a voyage to sea for a certain period of time and his beloved kissed him goodbye. Her kiss taught him that union of the lips is also a manifestation of love. Her kiss showed him a glimpse of heaven and all the wonders in it.The act of kissing revealed to him the heavenly secrets which tongue cannot express. He farther says that the kiss perpetuated a great sigh of relief and fulfillment. He journeyed to the spiritual world because his soul was glorified with her love which she has showered on him. He felt heavenly bliss. Their love was not only physical union but also union of the soul. He adds that her kiss made him continue feeling this heavenly love until they meet again. In other words he remained in the state of heavenly joy till the time he see his dear love again.In the proceeding lines, he recollects their parting and also accepts the same. He remembers the day when she kissed him again and again while tears rolled down her cheeks.   He could see that she was very sad as she was parti ng from him for ever. They had to separate for earthly reasons. She explained to him that many human beings have to part for earthly reasons, they part because the world wants it.   The lover consoles him that though they are physically separated from each other, they are spiritually together.No worldly force could separate their souls. And after death, the joined soul will reach God. The lover accepts his love’s departure. He says that love has chooses his beloved as her delegate. She will spread the message of universal love and they will remain united in love even in separation. He says to his dear love that her love shall always remain with as his comforting groom, in his memory and also as an eternal wedding. It is noteworthy that the lovers are married for ever even if their love has not been accepted by this world.In the following lines, he again laments the loss of his love. He asks: â€Å"Where are you, my beloved?† He wonders if she is awake at this hour of night when all around everything is silent. He wants the clean breeze to convey his every heart beat and his affection to his beloved. He wants the breeze to be his messenger of love for his dear lady. Next he expresses his miserable condition due to his disconnection from his love. He asks his love whether she is fondling his face in her memory.He says to his dear love that he is not the same person he was before they parted. Sorrow has dropped its veil on his happy face of the past. He is not a happy man anymore because he has lost his love. He farther says that his eyes which reflected her beauty, now has shrunken with crying and his lips has been dried which his beloved used to sweeten with kisses. Again the lover calls for his beloved. He asks her whether she can hear his weeping from beyond the ocean. The lover means to say that his dear love is far away, there is a distance of a ocean between them but still he has not forgotten her.His love for her has not decreased with pas sage of time and space. He still needs her love and affection and wants to convey this longing to her. He also wants to ask her whether she can understand the greatness of his patience. Through this .line, he means to say that he has endured lot of pain and suffering because of the loss of his love. In the next few lines it will be clear to the readers that he is complaining to his beloved about his pitiable condition. He becomes desperate as he thinks that some spirit of the air may be able to communicate to his love that his spirit is dying and that also in his youth. He speculates that there must be secret communication angels which will communicate to his love his grievance.In the last seven lines of the poem, the lover tells us what can cure his terrible plight. He calls his love again and again. He calls his beloved as beautiful star and says that obscurity of life has cast him upon its bosom. Life has become unintelligible to him; it has no meaning for him. He says that grief has dominated him i.e., he is totally grieve- stricken. He continues that if his love’s smile sails through the air to him, it will imbibe him with life. If he can breathe her fragrance in the air, it will nourish him. Lastly he addresses his dear love says how great is love and how small is he. He understands that he is much smaller in status that ‘love’ which is universal, eternal and all encompassing. He is a human being so he will die sometime but love will remain for ever.The poem is the contrast between the happy state of being of the lover when he and his lady love was together and the painful condition of the lover after he was detached from   her because of some earthly reason. The tone is of fulfillment and happiness when the lover praises her as God’s spirit. When he remembers the time they have spend together and the contentment they have felt in their company. The contentment was both physical and spiritual: â€Å"Recall you the hour I bad e you farewell, /And the Maritime kiss you placed on my lips? /That kiss taught me that joining of lips in Love/Reveals heavenly secrets which the tongue cannot utter!† (Lines 26-29).The tone is sad when he recollects the day his love departed from his life for ever with tears in her eyes. Near the end of the poem, the lover reveals his pathetic condition and here the tone is poignant: â€Å"Are you fondling my face in your memory? That image/Is no longer my own, for Sorrow has dropped his/Shadow on my happy countenance of the past./Sobs have withered my eyes which reflected your beauty/And dried my lips which you sweetened with kisses†, (Lines 49-51).The tone is desperate when he wants his beloved’s smile and fragrance to sail through air to revive him: â€Å"Where are you, my beautiful star? The obscurity of life/Has cast me upon its bosom; sorrow has conquered me. /Sail your smile into the air; it will reach and enliven me!/Breathe your fragrance into the air ; it will sustain me!†, (Lines 59-62). In the last three lines, the tone is of realization: â€Å"Where are you, me beloved? /Oh, how great is Love! /And how little am I!† (Lines 63-65).As with Gibran’s writings, the language is simple and colloquial. The poet uses day-to-day words to give a picture of the sadness of a lover in his separation from his dear love.   He uses simple words like ‘hut’, ‘Temple’, ‘poor’, ‘broken-hearted’, ‘field’, ‘night’, ‘forest’, ‘breeze’ and so on. He uses vivid images to give us a picture of the inner turmoil of the lover. We can visualize the lovers sitting in the shade of the tree, hidden from humanity. We get a glimpse of the forest and find the lovers walking hand in hand and totally engrossed in each other. We find the lover bidding goodbye to his beloved and the maritime kiss she places on his lips.We see her bidding good bye to her soul mate with tears rolling from her eyes. The lover disintegrates physically and mentally because of the loss of his love. We see his eyes shrunken with pain and suffering and his lips dry without the love of his beloved. It is a very emotional poem. We can actually feel the desperation of the lover in the following lines: â€Å"Is there any spirit in the air capable of conveying/To you the breath of this dying youth? Is there any/Secret communication between angels that will carry to/You my complaint?† (Lines 55-58).The poet has used figures of speech like similes and metaphors to heighten the state of being. In the beginning of the poem, the poet uses the metaphor of ‘little paradise’ to mean garden. The lover imagines that his beloved is in the garden watering the flowers that is looking upon her as their mother. The sentence: â€Å"†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦the flowers who look upon you/As infants look upon the breast of their mothers?†, (Lines 2-3), is a simile. Here the flowers are compared to infants and the lover’s beloved to a mother. In the lines: â€Å"Or amongst the books, seeking human knowledge, /While you are replete with heavenly wisdom?† (Lines 7-8), ‘among the books’ means library.The lover thinks that his lady love is abounding with heavenly wisdom; here there is an image of heaven because he compares her to a heavenly spirit. He also compares his beloved as a woman with goodness of soul who consoles the poor people with kind words and also with money. The poet uses the metaphor ‘bounty’, to mean money.   The lover calls his lady love as ‘God’s spirit’; it is an image of God. The poet give love the shape of a heavenly being when he: â€Å"Do you have memory of the day we met, when the halo of/You spirit surrounded us, and the Angels of Love/Floated about, singing the praise of the soul's deed?†, (lines 17-19).He compares the branches of the tree with ribs of our body. There is a simile in the following lines: â€Å"Do you recollect our sitting in the shade of the/Branches, sheltering ourselves from Humanity, as the ribs/Protect the divine secret of the heart from injury?† (Lines 20-22), where the lover says the branches protected them from humanity as the ribs protect the heart. The lover compares his beloved’s kiss to ‘maritime kiss’, which is an image of farewell kiss.There is a simile in the following lines: â€Å"That kiss was introduction to a great sigh, Like the Almighty's breath that turned earth into man†, (Lines 30-31), the lover’s sign is compared to Almighty’s breath. His lady love is love’s delegate. The love of his lady is his ’comforting groom’ and his ’Eternal wedding’. ‘Sorrow’ has been personified in the poem: â€Å"Sorrow has dropped his/Shadow on my happy countenance of the past†, (Lines 50-51).There is the image of ‘dying youth’, which express the horrible condition of the lover. Life is also personified in the following sentence: â€Å"The obscurity of life/Has cast me upon its bosom; sorrow has conquered me†, (Lines 59-60), lover says that life has lost its meaning for him without his lady love. There are many interrogative sentences in the poem which shows the inner conflict of the lover. The lover in the poem compares his dear lady ‘my beautiful star’, ‘my beloved’, ‘my other self’, ‘God’s Spirit’ and ‘companion of my soul’.Gibran often wrote about the oppressive of society in respect of the love of men and women. He was a romantic and so always favored country against city. In the poem, ‘A Lover’s Call’, the two lovers had to part from each other because of some ‘earthly purpose’. Their love for each other was true and they were soul partners but his l ady love walked away from him because human society wanted it. In the poem, we find that nature has sustained their love. They have sat under the tree away from humanity and walked in the forest hand in hand. Again, the love wants to complain to his beloved through the breeze and wants the smile and the fragrance of her lady to sail through the air to enliven him.Gibran is first a painter and he uses language to explicate his images. So his images have a visual quality. English speaking critiques do not think Gibran as particularly good or important. This critical condescension is not shared by the Arabic speaking world, where he is universally recognized as one of the key figures of modern Arabic literature. He was criticized because he was very serious in everything he wrote without any sense of humor. There is also limitation on the Arabic side of his work. He was unable to master the complex techniques of classical Arabic Literatures.He wrote almost nothing in the traditional po etic form.   Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬ËœA Lover’s Call’, is a romantic love poem. It is a call from a lover from his soul to the soul of another lover. The simple language and the beautiful images used by the poet charm our senses. It has a universal appeal because lovers of any age will fell the same passion for their beloved. We journey with the poet and the plight of the lover touches our heart. This poem is one of the many poems written by Gibran and remains a treasure of this talented writer.Citation:Khalil Gibran on : A Lover’s Call12 April 2007 ;;Using English. Com on: Figure of Speech12 April 2007 ;;John Walbridge on: Gibran, his Aesthetic and his Moral Universe.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Within the maximum of 500 words, prove that there is a moral lesson implied in the novel “The picture of Dorian Gray”

Oscar Wilde is one of the greatest literary showmen of the English nineteenth century. Of all his works, his only novel â€Å"†¦Ã¢â‚¬  is considered his masterpiece. In this novel, a moral lesson can be implied: Corruption will lead to destruction, obsession and torture. A moral lesson is experience that one can learn from a story and this lesson follows the standards of behavior considered acceptable and right by most people. A moral lesson implied when people suggest that something be true without actually saying it or suggests something as a necessary result. In this novel, the moral lesson is not directly delivered to the readers. It could only be found when people analyze what happens to the main character- Dorian Gray, what cause leads to what effect. At first, Dorian Gray appears to be something ideal and beautiful: young, handsome, innocent, simple and sensitive. He becomes the embodiment of Lord Henry’s ideas of the aesthetic life. Dorian soon leaves Basil’s studio for Lord Henry’s parlor, where he adopts the tenets of â€Å"the new Hedonism† and resolves to live his life as pleasure- seeker with no regard for conventional morality. He devotes himself to love in the beginning. Then he go from lover to lover, male and female and he pursues pleasure dispassionately. After that, he kills Basil, unable to accept the kind of love Basil is showing him. Dorian does not have a developed moral sense which would recognize a moral imperative- the idea that something is wrong no matter whether one ever has to pay to any consequences for them. He only regards acts as wrong when he can see their effects on the countenance of the figure in the portrait. He seems to separate the body and brain: â€Å"The body sins†¦ regret†. If body’s sin is natural, the soul should be responsible for physical action. Where sin has been committed, everything will be over and selfish is irresponsible thinking. At the end of the novel, Dorian is punished by his conscience, his innate and inner judge. He is torture badly for a long period leading to a tragic death. It is not the only thing he has to pay for his sins. The corruption from others leads to his destruction, bsession and torture. In the end, Dorian seems to be punished by his ability to be influenced: if the new social order celebrates individualism, as Lord Henry claims, Dorian falters because he fails to establish and live by his own moral code. In our life, we need to be alert in front of the seductions that are popular nowadays: hedonism and immoral pleasures. If not, we may be affected badly by the materialism leading to regrettable consequences.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Japanese Expressions about Dating

Japanese Expressions about Dating Phrase of the Day is a mind exercise. This months phrases are for dating! All phrases are quite casual. Please use only as a mind exercise (talk to yourself) just like the previous phrases, or use with a close friend. You might hear these expressions more on TV, anime or from native speakers. They will be helpful for you in some way, even you dont have a chance to use them ...   Have a fun! 1. I have a date today. Kyoo wa deeto da! 2. I look awful! Hidoi kao shiteru! 3. What shall I wear? Nani o kite ikou kana. 4. I am running late. Osokunarisou. 5. I wonder if he/she will wait for me. Mattete kureru kana. 6. He/She should have been here by now. Mou kuru hazu nanoni. 7. I wonder if I am waiting in the wrong place. Machiawase-basho machigaeta kana. 8. I will wait five more minutes. Ato go-fun matou. 9. I am sorry I am late. Okurete gomen ne. 10. Thank you for waiting. Mattete kurete arigatou. 11. What happened? Doushitano? 12. I was getting worried. Shinpai shichatta yo. 13. Dont be so mad. Sonnani okoranaide yo. 14. Do you mind if I look in this store for a minute? Koko chotto mite ittemo ii? 15. I am tired. Tsukarechatta. 16. Shall we stop for tea? Ocha shinai? 17. Where should we go next? Tsugi wa doko e ikou ka. 18. How about a movie? Eiga demo miru? 19. Lets go eat. Shokuji shiyou. 20. Do you feel like sushi? Sushi nanka dou? 21. Id rather have Chinese food. Chuuka ryouri no hou ga ii. 22. I wonder how much money I have left. Okane, ato ikura nokotteru kana. 23. Good, I have plenty. Yokatta, juubun aru. 24. Shoot, I might need more than this. Shimatta, tarinai kamo. 25. Why dont I pay half? Warikan ni shinai? 26. Its 11 oclock already! Mou juuichi-ji sugi da! 27. I have to go home. Kaeranakucha. 28. Shall I walk you home? Okutte ikou ka. 29. Why am I so nervous? Nande konnani doki doki shichau n darou. 30. I dont want to go home. Kaeritakunai na. The phrases for dating continue next month.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Catch-22 Review essays

Catch-22 Review essays Joseph Hellers Catch-22 is a fictional novel. It is a classic adventure through the dark, cynicism of war, filled with characters who hate themselves, hate each other, and most of all the war itself. The majority of Catch-22 takes place during the late stages of the European portion of World War II at an American Air Force camp on the Italian island of Pianosia in the Mediterranean Sea. Some of the book also is set in Rome while the officers are on leave from their duties during the war. The novels main character is John Yossarian, a man far from your usual hero. Yossarian feels paranoid; fears that everyone, even those in his squadron, are trying to kill him; and, avoids acts that could make him a hero because those are the ones that endanger his life most. Throughout Catch-22 he deals with the internal conflict of a morbid fear of death. He tries in vain many times to convince the squadrons doctor, Doc Daneeka, to ground him so he would not have to fly anymore missions. His main argument wont work however due to catch-22, an undefined law that contradicts existing laws, yet doesnt really exist but does exist because everyone believes it does. He says he is insane and should not be allowed to fly; unfortunately, catch-22 says that he is sane since he doesnt want to fly, and only someone who is insane would want to put his life at risk by flying. The only way he is able to avoid flying is by faking a liver illness that keeps him in the hospital until he can not bear being in the hospital anymore. Externally his superiors force him to fly against his will, making him face the possibility of being killed. Additionally, every time he comes close to completing the number of mission required to be able to be discharged Colonel Cathcart raises the number of missions in attempt to be promoted to general. The resolution to this problem is spending more time in the hospital and drawing up plans w...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Ix Chel - Mayan Goddess(es) of Fertility and Death

Ix Chel - Mayan Goddess(es) of Fertility and Death Ix Chel (sometimes spelled Ixchel) is, according to longstanding archaeological tradition, the Mayan moon goddess, one of the most important and ancient of Maya deities, connected to fertility and procreation. Her name Ix Chel has been translated as â€Å"Lady Rainbow† or as â€Å"She of the Pale Face,† an allusion to the moons surface. Fast Facts: Ix Chel Known For: Goddess of the Moon, fertility, physical love, weaving.Religion: Classic and Late Post Classic period Maya.  Also Known As: Lady Rainbow, She of the Pale Face, Goddess I, and Goddess O.  Appearance: Two aspects: a young, sensual woman and an old crone.  Shrines: Cozumel and Isla Mujeres, Mexico.Appearances: Madrid and Dresden codexes. According to Spanish colonial records, the Maya thought the moon goddess wandered the sky, and when she wasnt in the sky she was said to live in the cenotes (natural sinkholes filled with water). When the waning moon appeared again in the east, people made pilgrimages to the Ix Chel shrine on Cozumel. In the traditional pantheon of Maya gods and goddesses, Ix Chel has two aspects, that of a young sensual woman and an aged crone. However, that pantheon was built by archaeologists and historians based on a wide variety of sources, including iconography, oral history, and historical records. Over the decades of research, Mayanists have often debated whether they have incorrectly combined two female deities (Goddess I and Goddess O)  into one Moon Goddess. Goddess I The primary aspect of Goddess I is as a youthful wife, beautiful and downright sexy, and she is occasionally associated with references to the lunar crescent and rabbits, a pan-Mesoamerican reference to the moon. (In fact, many cultures see a rabbit in the moons face, but thats another story). She often appears with a beak-like appendage protruding from her upper lip. Goddess I is known as Ixik Kab (Lady Earth) or Ixik Uh (Lady Moon) in the Maya books known as the Madrid and Dresden codices,  and in the Madrid codex she appears as both a young and aged version. Goddess I presides over marriage, human fertility and physical love. Her other names include Ix Kanab (Child of Lady of the Seas) and Ix Tan Dzonot (Child of She in the Middle of the Cenote). Ixik Kab is associated with weaving in the post-classic period, and the aged form of Ixik Kab is often shown weaving and/or wearing a pair of horn-like elements on her head which likely represent spindles. Goddess O Goddess O, on the other hand, is a powerful aged woman identified not just with birth and creation but with death and world destruction. If these are different goddesses and not aspects of the same goddess, Goddess O is most likely to be the Ix Chel of the ethnographic reports. Goddess O is married to Itzamna and thus is one of the two creator gods of Maya origin myths. Goddess O has a raft of phonetic names including Chac Chel (Red Rainbow or Great End). Goddess O is depicted with a red body, and sometimes with feline aspects such as jaguar claws and fangs; sometimes she wears a skirt marked with crossed bones and other death symbols. She is closely identified with the Mayan rain god Chaac (God B) and often seen illustrated with pouring water or flood images. The fact that Goddess Os name means both rainbows and destruction may come as a surprise, but unlike in our Western society rainbows are not good omens for the Maya but are bad ones, the flatulence of the demons which arise from dry wells. Chac Chel is associated with weaving, cloth production, and spiders; with water, curing, divination, and destruction; and with making children and childbirth. Four Goddesses? The Moon Goddess of the Maya mythology may actually have many more aspects. The earliest Spanish travelers in the early 16th century recognized that there was a flourishing religious practice among the Maya dedicated to aixchel or yschel. The local men denied knowing the meaning of the goddess; but she was a deity of the Chontal, Manche Chol, Yucatec, and Pocomchi groups in the early colonial period. Ix Chel was one of four related goddesses worshiped on the islands of Cozumel and Isla de Mujeres: Ix Chel, Ix Chebal Yax, Ix Hunie, and Ix Hunieta. Mayan women made pilgrimages to their temples on the island of Cozumel and placed her idols underneath their beds, asking for help. The Oracle of Ix Chel According to several historical records, during the Spanish colonial period, there was a life-sized ceramic statue known as the Oracle of Ix Chel located on Cozumel Island. The oracle at Cozumel is said to have been consulted during the foundation of new settlements and in times of warfare. Pilgrims were said to have followed sacbe (the prepared Maya causeways) from as far away as Tabasco, Xicalango, Champoton, and Campeche to venerate the goddess. The Mayan pilgrimage route crossed the Yucatan from west to east, mirroring the pathway of the moon through the sky. Colonial dictionaries report that the pilgrims were known as hula and the priests were Aj Kin. The Aj Kin posed the pilgrims questions to the statue and, in exchange for offerings of copal incense, fruit, and bird and dog sacrifices, reported the answers in the voice of the oracle. Francisco de Lopez de Gomara (Hernan Cortes chaplain) described the shrine on Cozumel island as a square tower, wide at the base and stepped all around. The upper half was erect and at the top was a niche with a thatched roof and four openings or windows. Inside this space was a large, hollow, kiln-fired clay image fastened to the wall with lime plaster: this was the image of the moon goddess Ix Chel. Finding the Oracle There are several temples located near the cenotes at the Maya sites of San Gervasio, Miramar, and El Caracol on Cozumel Island. One which has been identified as a plausible location for the oracle-shrine is the Kana Nah or High House at San Gervasio. San Gervasio was an administrative and ceremonial center on Cozumel, and it had three complexes of five groups of buildings all connected by sacbe. Kana Nah (Structure C22-41) was part of one of those complexes, consisting of a small pyramid, five meters (16 feet) in height with a square plan of four stepped tiers and a main stairway bordered by a railing. Mexican archaeologist Jesus Galindo Trejo argues that the Kana Nah pyramid appears to be aligned with the major lunar standstill when the moon sets at its extreme point on the horizon. The connection of C22-41 as a contender for the Ixchel Oracle was first put forward by American archaeologists David Freidel and Jeremy Sabloff in 1984. So, Who Was Ix Chel? American archaeologist Traci Ardren (2015) has argued that the identification of Ix Chel as a single moon goddess combining female sexuality and traditional gender roles of fertility comes straight from the minds of the earliest scholars studying her. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, says Ardren, male western scholars brought their own biases about women and their roles in society into their theories about Maya myths. These days, Ix Chels reputed fertility and beauty have been appropriated by several non-specialists, commercial properties, and new age religions, but as Ardren quotes Stephanie Moser, it is dangerous for archaeologists to assume we are the only people who can create meaning out of the past. Selected Sources Ardren, Traci. Mending the Past: Ix Chel and the Invention of a Modern Pop Goddess. Antiquity 80.307 (2015): 25–37. Print.Boskovic, Aleksandar. The Meaning of Maya Myths. Anthropos 84.1/3 (1989): 203–12. Print.Colas, Pierre Robert, Katja Christiane  Stengert, and Urlich Wolfel. The Mapping of Ix Chel: A Terminal Classic Secondary Maya Site on the Northern Vaca Plateau, Belize, Central America. Northern Vaca Plateau Geoarchaeology Project, 2006. Print.Galindo Trejo, Jesus. Calendric-Astronomical Alignment of Architectural Structures in Mesoamerica: An Ancestral Cultural Practice. The Role of Archaeoastronomy in the Maya World: The Case Study of the Island of Cozumel. Eds. Sanz, Nuria, et al. Paris, France: UNESCO, 2016. 21–36. Print.Iwaniszewski, Stanislaw. Time and the Moon in Maya Culture: The Case of Cozumel. The Role of Archaeoastronomy in the Maya World: The Case Study of the Island of Cozumel. Eds. Sanz, Nuria, et al. Paris, France: UNESCO, 2016. 39 œ55. Print.Polk, Jason S., Philip E. van Beynen, and Philip P. Reeder. Late Holocene Environmental Reconstruction Using Cave Sediments from Belize. Quaternary Research 68.1 (2007): 53–63. Print. Ã…  prajc, Ivan. Archaeological Sites on the Island of Cozumel: The Role of Astronomy in Architectural and Urban Planning. The Role of Archaeoastronomy in the Maya World: The Case Study of the Island of Cozumel. Eds. Sanz, Nuria, et al. Paris, France: UNESCO, 2016. 57–83. Print.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Edward abbey Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Edward abbey - Essay Example Abbey attended University of Mexico in 1951, where he did B.A. in Philosophy and English and also completed his masters in Philosophy. Abbey’s writings are inspired from his life experiences. Desert Solitaire, published in 1968, which is considered one of the best narratives in nature writing, tells about Abbey’s experience in Utah where he worked as a ranger. Abbey’s writings are not only engaging and entertaining but they also serve as a wake-up call for the conservation of nature. Abbey’s long list of essays and books include Jonathon Troy, Fire on the Mountain, Black sun but the book that earned him the greatest acclaim was ‘The Monkey Wrench Gang’ which was published in 1975. The book coined the word ‘monkey wrenching’ which meant to sabotage for the defense of environment. It is also speculated that the book inspired the formation of the militant group ‘Earth First’ (Cahalan). His orneriness over environmental i ssues made Abbey a hero among the activists of his time. This protagonist of radical environmentalism died at the age of 62 and was buried in the state of Arizona. Works Cited Cahalan, James M. Edward Abbey: A Life . University of Arizona Press; , 2001. Print

Servant Leadership Reflection Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Servant Leadership Reflection - Essay Example Secondly, servant leadership might lead to the failure of an organization to achieve its goals. Servant leadership focuses on enhancing growth at both organizational and community level, which hinders centralized growth in the firm (Schaap, 2008). Finally, servant leadership can demean the leadership role of the management in the organization. This servant leadership can cause laxity at the workplace because it eliminates the leadership at the workplace (Schaap, 2008). There is comfort working under servant leadership style because it promotes unity in the organization. In addition, servant leadership enables managers to experience the status of the working conditions of their employees. This type of leadership creates a good working atmosphere among the subordinate workers and the managers. In addition, it is essential to enhancing the public relations of the organization and production of quality products. Consequently, I would be comfortable using the system (Hammer, 2012). Today’s global society is characterized by the used of advanced technology in all sectors of an organization. The technology enables individuals to share their views regarding the operations of the company. In addition, the modern global society focuses mainly on the corporate social responsibility, which is achievable through servant leadership (Hammer, 2012). Servant leadership is a real leadership approach in the modern society. It enables organizations to relate effectively with the communities through production of high-quality products and corporate social initiatives. In addition, it creates a platform where employees obtain motivation from the leaders that are essential in enhancing productivity and profitability of the organization (Schaap,

Friday, October 18, 2019

Human resource line manager Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Human resource line manager - Essay Example The goal of this paper is to resolve the eternal Line Manager-HRM Manager dilemma and show how these two professions interact in a Soft and Hard HRM models. This paper does not merely define the concepts and scope of obligations but performs a detailed analysis of the controversies surrounding the roles of LM and HRM professionals operating collectively in one and the same organizational structure. This paper teaches a good lesson of excellence in organizational performance: only constant cooperation between HR and Line Managers can lead organizations to the desired strategic outcomes. Overview of Human Resource managers and Line managers It is hard to describe the general responsibilities of HR managers, since the scope and range of their obligations largely depends upon the organizational structure in which they operate or the HRM model they pursue (Mullins,2005). Generally, a HR manager’s goal is to achieve excellence in employee performance and use is as a valuable organiz ational resource. HR managers work to maintain a close association between employee skills and their job obligations. Therefore, they have a significant effect on the staff and their levels of performance and productivity (Bovee et al 2007). Line managers are department based managers, who are aware of how business operates and what exactly customers need (Marchington & Wilkinson 2005). Line managers are experts in their own field, and usually they are not supposed to have knowledge of Human resource management (Mullins 2005). Rather, Line Managers exemplify a strong bridge between lower and higher managerial levels, thus letting them accommodate their operational priorities (Power et al 2008). In a company that considers itself efficient, communication between HR managers and line managers is crucial. Human resource managers may be effective at the organization level, but they need to interact with line managers, who have access and connect them to lower rank managers. Line manager s have instant responsibility at departmental level (Mullins,2005). Hard Model (Resource Based) Hard approach emphasises managing the head count resource in rational ways as for any other economic factor like land or capital (Truss et al.,1997). The Hard model concentrates on quantitative, measurable criteria and control and performance management, to create competitive advantage and add value to all department decisions and operations (Gill,1999). According to Storey (2007), the main goal of HRM in the resource-based model must be that of encouraging employees to enhance their engagement with workplace tasks and organizational compliance. WBBS adopted hard HRM model successfully West Bromwich Building society initiated the development of a new management approach, which will become the fundamental part of its business strategy. They tried to create an employee-customer-service-profit cycle, with employee engagement as its core element. The concept of engagement is essentially about people's willingness and ability to contribute discretion efforts. WBBS began to train their line managers at twelve different strategies, including culture changes and coaching. Following the implementation of the framework, engagement in all departments was measured. All results were taken seriously and sent to inform department heads. The outcomes of the model implementation are clear: improved customer satisfaction, record-breaking financial results, UK business excellence award

JOURNAL ENTRY Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

JOURNAL ENTRY - Essay Example As noted by Covey, a college education opens one’s future doors (65). The other people in my life who will embrace this transformation are my parents. My parents believe that getting a college education is the ultimate gift that a parent can give to their child because it empowers the child. My mother always says that with a college education, I will be in a better position to understand the changing markets and how they will impact on the family’s retirement accounts. My father says that I will be in charge of the finances in my family and to understand every aspect of management, finance and dealing with financial issues, a college education will be useful. They also constantly remind me that with the college education, the purpose is not to get a great job in future, but build a strong mind. My parents always say I have their full support. My father says he will ensure that my school fee is always paid on time, but I have to assure him that I will not miss the classes without valid reasons. My mother is enthusiastic and says that she looks forward to getting school transcripts with high-test scores. My friends will also embrace the transformation as they are also looking forward to getting a college education. The support from my friends and my parents is critical. The financial and emotional support from my parents matters because I believe without their help I would not be in school. The emotional support from my friends matters because I am always encouraged to see their optimism even in bad situations. Luckily, I am happy to say that there is no one who does not support this

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Foodservice Marketing Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Foodservice Marketing - Assignment Example They also display their logo (the Golden Arches) that makes it easy for the customer to recognize the brand. At Olive Garden, they do their merchandising in a different way. They do not display their products at the website. Most of their displays are at the restaurants’ menus. One can also contact them to place an order which they deliver to their customers as per the order. It is the same case at Sizzler. Their foods and beverages are displayed at their menu. Another company that merchandizes by displaying their products on the internet is coca cola company. Marketing involves influencing customers to buy your products. A successive marketing technique should meet the customers’ expectations (Garlough, p. 33). McDonalds also has a marketing strategy that has helped it become a force that is difficult to beat in the market. It has a marketing mix that is attractive to many customers. Their prices are ones that most customers are willing to pay. In addition, the company also makes numerous advertisements on TV and newspapers. It also identifies its hotels, which are visited, mostly and this assists it when developing its marketing strategies. They carry out research so as to establish the correct marketing mix. Their service is quick and friendly too (McDonald’s Corporation, p. 2). The marketing strategies in other food service companies are not so different from that of McDonalds. For Sizzler, Olive Garden and Chilis, they all market their products through advertisement in the media and newspapers. Techniques used by companies are extremely influential in getting customers to buy the company’s. In fact, in my perspective I purchased coffee from McDonalds due to the merchandising technique they use to market their products. Attractive displays by a company in their advertisement and merchandising techniques have the ability to attract customers. Restaurants such as Chilis and Sizzler do not have a marketing technique that is as strong as that of

It Is Important to Identify and Meet the Individual Needs of Learners Research Paper

It Is Important to Identify and Meet the Individual Needs of Learners - Research Paper Example As a teacher, planning is one of the very essential roles as it helps in directing or guiding me in delivering. My planning depends on the various individual needs identified; that prompt me to apply the necessary teaching strategy. This dependency is due to my requirement to ensure that these needs of my students are all properly attended to within my planning. Without this planning, it would be difficult to meet the individual needs of every of my students, and many of them might not follow in line with the curriculum. Therefore, it may result in dissatisfaction and/or de-motivation to the students and me as the students would feel not well catered for and I may feel I have underperformed in my teaching role as a planner. Also, it is a part of my teaching responsibility to allow the involvement of learners in the planning of assessments. Since learners are not to be subjected to surprise tests, I always involve them in the planning process while giving them chances to make their su ggestions. This way, they may not feel put in overwhelming situations. Furthermore, they will have a feeling of a sense of ownership. That way, the planning process can meet every learner’s individual need, by the consideration of different resources that enhance effective and fair test. It is the responsibility of a teacher that requires me to implement/deliver teaching according to design and plan while including diversity and equality promotion. It is essential for educators to recognize the influence of culture on learning.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Foodservice Marketing Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Foodservice Marketing - Assignment Example They also display their logo (the Golden Arches) that makes it easy for the customer to recognize the brand. At Olive Garden, they do their merchandising in a different way. They do not display their products at the website. Most of their displays are at the restaurants’ menus. One can also contact them to place an order which they deliver to their customers as per the order. It is the same case at Sizzler. Their foods and beverages are displayed at their menu. Another company that merchandizes by displaying their products on the internet is coca cola company. Marketing involves influencing customers to buy your products. A successive marketing technique should meet the customers’ expectations (Garlough, p. 33). McDonalds also has a marketing strategy that has helped it become a force that is difficult to beat in the market. It has a marketing mix that is attractive to many customers. Their prices are ones that most customers are willing to pay. In addition, the company also makes numerous advertisements on TV and newspapers. It also identifies its hotels, which are visited, mostly and this assists it when developing its marketing strategies. They carry out research so as to establish the correct marketing mix. Their service is quick and friendly too (McDonald’s Corporation, p. 2). The marketing strategies in other food service companies are not so different from that of McDonalds. For Sizzler, Olive Garden and Chilis, they all market their products through advertisement in the media and newspapers. Techniques used by companies are extremely influential in getting customers to buy the company’s. In fact, in my perspective I purchased coffee from McDonalds due to the merchandising technique they use to market their products. Attractive displays by a company in their advertisement and merchandising techniques have the ability to attract customers. Restaurants such as Chilis and Sizzler do not have a marketing technique that is as strong as that of

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

INTB-3000 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

INTB-3000 - Essay Example It is also seen that rise in employment would significantly improve the spending power the people and thereby help improve the overall economic situation. But while, Keynes’ was emphatic that economic reforms must be accompanied by lower interest rates so that small businessmen an cope with the financial burden with more latitude, Krugman has been conspicuously silent on this issue of the stimulus package. The blue print of economic reforms has profusely claimed that the huge public investment on development of new technology, improved public transport system, healthcare and education would greatly facilitate increase jobs, improve prospects of new business opportunities for entrepreneurs and help the government in reining the falling economy. But the fact that Krugman and government both have not specified the various checks and controls for the disbursement of the stimulus package has become a huge concern for the people at

Monday, October 14, 2019

The Harlem Renaissance and Its Role in American Literature Essay Example for Free

The Harlem Renaissance and Its Role in American Literature Essay Historically, the African American experience is defined by the constant struggle to be recognized, to assert identity, and to rise from the stereotypes and negativity of racism and discrimination. While it took some time before these issues were resolved, the contributions coming from the African American culture’s collective and individual experiences have formed a profound body of work, from then until now. One of the most renowned eras of African American literature is the Harlem Renaissance. Originally known as the New Negro Movement, the Harlem Renaissance saw an incredible influx of activity within the community of black writers that started during the early 1920s (McElrath, par. 1). The movement began with the holding of literary discussions series in both lower and upper Manhattan, specifically Greenwich Village and Harlem. Much of the credit was given to Charles Spurgeon Johnson, an editor who called on young and aspiring African American writers to bring their creative talents to New York in order to form an unprecedented membership of black creative artists. The call was heeded, and the next few years saw the arrival of black writers from all over America and even from the Caribbean, coinciding with the cultural phenomenon of the black urban migration. The Harlem Renaissance was soon born, and its roster included then-unknown names that would rise to exemplary heights in a short time (â€Å"Harlem Literature†, pars. 1-2). II. Themes Within the Harlem Renaissance More than a specific form or style, the Harlem Renaissance was characterized by its embracing of all styles and elements arising from culture and experience. The black signature in the emergent jazz and blues music also made its impact on the literature produced, since many of the themes covered by music also resonated within the writing community. Slavery and the production of identity, the complexities of life as African Americans in the modernity of the urban North, and the issues concerning the writing and performance for white audiences were some of the more prevalent themes appropriated by writers of the Harlem Renaissance. Racial pride and the reference to African history were found within the lines of black writers’ works, as well as a marked desire to achieve political and social equality within the greater American society. Yet more than anything. the Harlem Renaissance was defined by its upholding of diversity—in style, voice, and expression (â€Å"Harlem Renaissance†, pars. 1-2). Langston Hughes and Claude McKay, both poets, paved the way for the showcase of the African American mindset, particularly in Hughes’ appropriation of the ghetto life, and in the militant tone and passion against racial violence and for cultural pride in McKay’s â€Å"If We Must Die†. Other writers followed suit, and most notable was the membership of women in this elite circle. III. The Men and Harlem African American writers have come a long way since the efforts of Frederick Douglass on his text opposing slavery (Malvasi, par. 4), and the premier list of the Harlem Renaissance included many names, but always topped by three: Hughes, McKay, and Countee Cullen. Unlike the other two, Cullen had lived all his life in New York City, and viewed poetry as ‘raceless’, though he did acknowledge the presence of racism in America. However, the tackling of racist themes and injustice in his iconic poem â€Å"Yet I Do Marvel† apparently changed this passive outlook. Hughes, on the other hand, was quite experienced and well-traveled, a fact that appears in the use of the outdoors as a literary device in his profound poem â€Å"Negro Speaks of Rivers†. Finally, Claude McKay promoted a more irreverent method of fighting inequality and racism, the nature of which answers the anger and fear instilled in the hearts of African Americans. His abovementioned poem, â€Å"If We Must Die†, calls for honorable death in the face of the various forms of torture and persecution against blacks (McCrone 2-3). IV. The Writing Women of the Harlem Renaissance Perhaps the most marginalized among an already marginalized community are the women, most of whom are relegated to traditional roles limited to domesticity and child-rearing. While these were—and still are—values deemed important and significant, much must be credited to the African American women writers of the era, who had more to contribute on top of the collective experience of slavery and injustice. Editor Jessie Fauset, teacher Dorothy Peterson, and writers Ethel Ray Nance, Regina Anderson, and Georgia Douglas Johnson were some of the first women to claim part of the Harlem Renaissance for the interests of the female voice. Included in their activities were discussion and writing group organization, promotion of black authors in their respective communities, and the publication of African American writing in various magazines where they served as editors. But most of all, the women of the Harlem Renaissance made their mark by writing about fear and violence, as well as gender and tradition, within the context of the black experience. Names such as Dorothy West, Hallie Quinn, and Zora Neale Hurston were active in this group, women who would later make their literary voices resound even louder than those of their male counterparts (Lewis, pars. 13-17). V. Criticism Notwithstanding the great proliferation of creativity and intellectualism, the Harlem Renaissance and its impact on American literature was not without flaws or criticism. Because of the newness of the concept of freedom, specially in the realm of writing, many black writers resorted to crafting their works in styles commonly identified with white literary standards. Even worse, some of them appropriated images of blacks that agree with the racial stereotypes propagated by the whites. The goal to promote African American identity was not always successful, perhaps due to the still flimsy grasp on freedom and equality—concepts that are alive and well in this era. Works Cited â€Å"Harlem Literature†. Harlem Renaissance Multimedia Resource. 2009. John Carroll University. 17 March 2009 http://www. jcu. edu/harlem/Literature/Page_1. htm. â€Å"Harlem Renaissance†. Spiritus-Temporis. com. 2005. 16 March 2009 http://www. spiritus-temporis. com/harlem-renaissance/diverse-and-common-themes. html. Lewis, Jone Johnson. â€Å"†Harlem Renaissance Women: African American Women Dreaming in Color†. Women’s History. 2009. About. com. 17 March 2009 http://womenshistory. about. com/od/harlemrenaissance/a/dreaming_color. htm. Malvasi, Meg Greene. â€Å"Soul Deep: African American Literature and Music†. Suite101. com. 2004. 16 March 2009 http://www. suite101. com/article. cfm/harlem_renaissance/98190. McCrone, Audrey. â€Å"Three Harlem Renaissance Writers (Hughes, McKay, Cullen)†. Essays on American Literature. 2001. 17 March 2009 http://www. suite101. com/article. cfm/american_literature_essays/78581/3. McElrath, Jessica. â€Å"Harlem Renaissance: The New Negro Movement†. Afro-American History. 2009. About. com. 17 March 2009 http://afroamhistory. about. com/cs/harlemrenaissance/a/harlemren. htm.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Malaysian Airline vs Airasia: An Analysis

Malaysian Airline vs Airasia: An Analysis Introduction 1.1.1 The first air service route is conducted between Penang and Singapore during the colonial of British and this led to the incorporation of Malaysia Airways Limited (MAL) in year 1937 by the British government. With the emergence of Malaysia in year 1963, the airline changed its name to Malaysian-Singapore Airlines then to Malaysia Airline Limited in year 1973 and eventually to Malaysia Airlines in year 1987. 1.1.2 AirAsia was set up in 1993 and started up its business on 18 November 1996. The founder of Airasia was a government-owned conglomerate DRB-Hicom. Airasia has incurred a lot of debt and liability at that time and former Time Warner executive Tony Fernandess company Tune Air Sdn Bhd decided to purchase Airasia based on market share price at time of RM1 on 2 December 2001. Mission and objectives Malaysia Airlines vision is to become An Airline of Excellence. Its mission is to become a consistently profitable growth airline through the strategy of business transformation plan and its objective is to flying to win customers and convert the airlines IT operations to deliver fantastic internal customer experience. The mission of Airasia is to form ASEAN brand of Airline Company that is widely known around the globe and to arrive at the lowest cost so that everyone can afford to fly with AirAsia. It also aims to keep its company on track with the latest industry developments and to incorporate excellence practices into their operations that will benefit their customers. The brands or products manufactured Malaysia Airlines Domestic benefits, international benefits, annual benefit travel insurance Malaysia Airlines management team has offer three product plan options: Basic Plan, Value Plan and Premier Plan for domestic traveler, overseas traveler, and frequent traveler. Frequent flyer program Malaysia Airlines has two frequent flyer programs: Grads for Students (Grads) and Enrich. Grads is a frequent flyer program with benefits designed for students whereas Enrich is specifically designed for frequent travelers especially businessman will enable them to gain privileges of obtaining discount or free flights when travelling around the world. Airasia AirAsia Insure Travel Protection is exclusively designed to protect and insure the respective traveler during the duration of flying with Airasia. It comprises In-Flight Plan and Comprehensive Plan. In-Flight Plan was insurance program specifically designed for one-way journey passenger. However, Comprehensive Plan was devised for two-way journey passenger. Types of products Malaysia Airlines offered products such as travel insurance, air cargo services, international and domestic flight services, classes of cabin seats, MAS magazines, MAS souvenirs and value fare packages like Get-the-Deal, and Balik Kampung. Airasia is offering products such as Airasia courier services, Airasia souvenirs, Airasia credit card, Airasia self-produced magazines and Airasia cargo delivery service. Logo and tag-lines The appearance of the corporate logo is designed to be moon kite, with a sheared swept-back look. The word MALAYSIA is italicised to lean parallel with the logo to emphasize on speed as well as direction. The letters MAS bear red clippings in the font style to symbolize the initials of the statutory name of the airline, Malaysian Airline System (MAS). The introduction of blue to the original red to the moon kite logo has national meaning. Moreover, the red and blue divide equally in the middle has a sense of equilibrium. Moreover, the tag-line emphasizes that MH is more than just an airline code; in fact MH is Malaysian Hospitality. Airasia logo is Airasia in italicized form with the characters shaded by red color background whereas its tag-line is Now Everyone can fly. The red color logo is a strong message to the world about environmental problem. Current business development Type of business Topic Sentence: Both Airasia and Malaysia Airlines engaged in trading and services industry. Supporting detail 1: Malaysia Airline is a Malaysia-based company service whereas Airasia is a Thai-based company that engaged in air transportation and their related services. Supporting detail 2: They engaged in operation such as cargo and courier service, goods retailing as well as passenger carrier. Strategies Topic Sentences: In order to be competitive in the industry, Airasia has practised cost leadership strategies whilst Malaysia Airlines(MAS) involved in business transformation plan. Supporting detail 1: Airasia tend to focus on short route to a certain destination in order2 to reduce operating cost. Supporting detail 2: Business transformation program is competitive strategy used by MAS to fight over the big threat such as intense competition, rising cost of fuel in airline industry 2.3 Investor relations Topic Sentences: Airasia and Malaysia Airlines are public listed company traded on the main board of Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange. Supporting detail 1: The stock of Airasia and Malaysia Airlines are ordinary shares offered to be transacted in primary market and secondary market. Supporting detail 2: Airasia recorded revenue of RM941 million year over year with a 26% growth while Malaysia Airline incurred an operating loss of RM 286 million in the second quarter of year 2010. Public relations Topic Sentence: Airasia launched AirasiaMegastore, an online shopping gateway for consumers while Malaysia Airlines established PINTAR visit mainly for students Supporting detail 1: Airasia Mega Store open 24 hours every day and it offers a wide variety of branded product at discounted price Supporting detail 2: MAS provide students with academic tour to Malaysia Airlines and tourist spot in Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya because they are concerned about the academic progress of students in Malaysia. 3.0 Marketing strategies. 3.1They market their product by using different strategies in order to gain competitive advantage in the markets. 3.1.1 They use market segmentation strategy to split out the market they want to serve. For example, Air Asia segments the market with different income groups and serves the low income group. However, MAS serve the high income group initially, but because of the emerging of Air Asia, it also moves into serving the low income group of customers. 3.1.2 In order to serve the market they have targeted, they positioned themselves differently to gain a different brand image in the mind of customers. Air Asia is using price or quality positioning strategy. On the other hand, MAS tend to use product class positioning at first, but it changes to a mix positioning strategy of price or quality and product class. 3.2 They compete with their competitors with 4P strategies which are commonly applied in marketing. 3.2.1 They use different price strategies that reflect their positioning strategy and price objective to compete in the market. Air Asia is using everyday low price strategy and trying to compete in Blue Ocean. However, MAS use prestige pricing strategy at first, after then which it change to mixed pricing strategies included meeting competitors pricing. 3.2.2 They use different product strategies, so that they can provide different kind of services to compete. Air Asia provides non-frills services in order to keep the cost as low as possible. While MAS provides excellent and luxury services at first, after which it also come out with low price product to compete with its competitors. 3.2.3 They use different promotion strategies to fight against their competitors promotion strategies. Both come out with a variety of special promotions to attract customers. For example, MAS come out RM 1 for ticket to compete with free seat of Air Asia and sometime the fare of MAS is even lower than Air Asia. 3.3 Advertising methods have played an important role to attract the attention and perform the function of informing, persuading and reminding the customers. 3.3.1 They are involved in different advertising channel like television, newspaper, MATTA fair, sponsorship, internet, radio and even performing social corporate responsibility to grab the public attention. 4.0 Conclusion 4.1 The unpredictable changing environment and fierce competition are challenging their company stability. 4.1.1 The increase of fuel price globally has challenged their ability to control the operating cost. Both companies performance was also seriously affected. 4.1.2The management of resources has to be managed effectively and efficiently to remain agile in the market. Air Asia has to control the punctuality index and customer services which were resulted from the behavior of over save cost. In contrast, MAS has to control its behavior of being uneconomical. 4.2 Recently, both of them have developed so well to proceed to their vision, mission and objective. 4.2.1 They have made a lot of improvement on customer services standard to please their beloved customer. Air Asia has adopted complex information system such as state-of-the-art booking system to process various booking. At the same time, MAS has also invested few hundred millions on passenger service system to shorten and provide faster services. 4.2.2 They have expanded their service world-wide in order to provide more choices to customer. Air Asia has joined VietJet airline from Vietnam, and Jestar airline from Australia to expand their routes. However, it also involves in other business, like hotel sector, online purchase and so on. MAS also expand their routes to more area, and involve in online shopping. 4.2.3 They have performed corporate social responsibility to contribute to the society. Air Asia has supported MERCY Malaysias relief mission in Padang, Indonesia whereas MAS has put effort to reduce the carbon dioxide emission to promote a greener environment. 4.3 They are continuing their effort to achieve their vision and promise to do better! 4.3.1 Both companies do not reveal any specify future plan about 2011. But by referring to previous ongoing plans, we tend to know fairly how and where these two companies will move in their future plan. MAS will continue their steps of business transformation plans 2 in this case, such as maintaining 5 stars quality of services and low cost, attracting more customers, building up the network and capacity through service providing. In the future, Air Asia will provide more low cost journey and increase the regularity of fly. It will also continuously keep the cost as low as possible and enable more people to fly! Prepared by: Betty Yong Siew Ning (0902327) Wong Chin Hong (0902068)

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Mergers in the World Economy Essay -- Economics Wealth Papers

Mergers in the World Economy . "Monopoly is a great enemy to good management which can never be universally established but in consequence of that free and universal competition which forces every body to have recourse to it for the sake of self-defense" (Smith, 1776: 63). Adam Smith found that monopolies were a negative aspect for an economy therefore supporting competition among firms in order to protect one’s firm. Competition policy affects the nature of firms and policy makers in today’s global economy. Competition policy effects the world economy in many ways and with its increase in importance there must be an international agreement on competition policy. Adam Smith highly regarded competition policy as a means to enhance economic performance. Mergers can provide positive aspects for an economy and competition policy but also provide problems. The merger of aircraft manufacturers shows how mergers directly affect society today. Competition within economies is the act of competing in the international economy. Competition policy is necessary to regulate competition between firms. It serves as a barrier for misconduct of firms while encompassing antimonopoly policies which act as guideline against boundaries or barriers. "Competition policy is understood as facilitating corporate takeovers to allow more efficient managers to control productive assets" (Peritz, 1996: 282) The main goal for competition policy is to support effectiveness of the economy as a whole. Smith points out how competition will only benefit both consumers and producers in the end rather than have a monopoly. "It can never hurt either the consumer or the producer on the contrary it must tend to make the retailers both sell cheaper and bu... ...ade Rules in the Making. Washington DC: The Brookings Institute Press. Jacquemin, Lloyd, Tharakan and Waelbroeck. 1998. "Competition Policy in an International Setting: The Way Ahead." The World Economy Volume 21 Number 8, pages 1179-1183. Kim, E. Han., Singal, Vijay. 1993. "Mergers and Market Power: Evidence from the Airline Industry." The American Economic Review Volume 83 Number 3, pages 549-568. Ott, James. 1986. "Airline Mergers Will Intensify Competition for Aircraft Orders." Aviation Week and Space Technology, pages 32-34. Peritz, Rudolph. 1996. Competition Policy in America: 1888-1992. England: Oxford University Press. Smith, Adam. 1776. The Wealth of Nations. England: Oxford University Press. Tharakan and Lloyd. 1998."Competition Policy in a Changing International Economic Enviroment." The World Economy Volume 21 Number 8, pages 997-1002.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Micro Baterial Morphology Lab

Bacterial Morphology Part 1: Viewing Prepared Slides of Common Bacterial Shapes Familiarize yourself with each morphological type to use as a comparative tool for the remainder of the activity. Record your observations. Part 2: Disinfecting Your Area to Use Live Organisms: Part 3: Viewing Live Organisms – Wet Mount Preparation There was several amoeba shaped cells that varied in size. There were five somewhat darker areas that were circular in shape. There were also three large, oddly shaped areas that had very distinct edges. Part 4: Direct Staining: Slide One: There were two clusters that were fairly easy to recognize.All of the cells were cocci. Some of the cells were large while others were practically nonexistent. Slide Two: There were different layers of cells. The cells were rectangular in shape and varied in size. A nucleus was visible in each cell. Slide Three: This slide was a mixture of different shapes. Nothing was recognizable. Part 5: Indirect Staining: Chains of both cocci and bracillus cells were both visible and identifiable. The chains varied in length. The cheek and yeast smear was clearer. The same shapes were seen as before just with sharper outlines.The cells were much easier to see with more detail. Questions: A. What are the advantages of using bleach as a disinfectant? The disadvantages? The advantages of using 70% alcohol? The disadvantages? B. List three reasons why you might choose to stain a particular slide rather than view it as a wet mount. C. Define the following terms: †¢Chromophore: †¢Acidic Dye: †¢Basic Dye: D. What is the difference between direct and indirect staining? E. What is heat fixing? F. Why is it necessary to ensure that your specimens are completely air dried prior to heat fixing? G.Describe what you observed in your plaque smear wet mount, direct stained slide, and indirectly stained slide. What were the similarities? What were the differences? H. Describe what you observed in your cheek sme ar wet mount, direct stained slide, and indirectly stained slide. What were the similarities? What were the differences? I. Describe what you observed in your yeast wet mount, direct stained slide, and indirectly stained slide. What were the similarities? What were the differences? J. Were the cell types the same in all three specimen sets: yeast, plaque, and cheek? How were they similar? How were they different?

Thursday, October 10, 2019

How Enzymes Work in the Home and in Industry Essay Essay

This essay aims to explore the ways on how enzymes are used in home and in industry, and it aims to explain the advantages and disadvantages of using enzymes in the home and industry. An enzyme is a protein that is formed by the body that acts as a catalyst to cause a certain desired reaction. Enzymes are very specific. Each enzyme is designed to initiate a specific response with a specific result. Firstly, the AQA Science Biology textbook published in 2011 by Nelson Thornes Ltd suggests on page 172 that â€Å"in the past, people boiled and scrubbed their clothes to get them clean – by hand! Now we have washing machines and enzymes ready and waiting to digest the stains.† This is telling us how people now use enzymes at home and it is much easier from the past. This is an example of how enzymes are used in homes. Enzymes are used to get rid of the stains that are on the clothes in washing machines. Enzymes are used to break down proteins and fats that are in the stains. This is evident in the same textbook on the same page number mentioned above when it says, â€Å"many people use biological detergents to remove stains such as grass, sweat and food from their clothes. Biological washing powders contain proteases and lipases.† Proteases and lipases are those enzymes that are used to break down the proteins and fats that are in the stains. In addition, it is better to use biological detergents instead of non-biological detergents at lower temperatures because that is when the enzymes work at their best, if the water is too hot then they are denatured and this also means that you use less electricity. The edited book version called ‘Enzymes in Industry’ written by Dr Wolfgang Aehle published in 2007 suggests that â€Å"in the food industry enzymes are used to improve dairy products like cheese or to supply us with breads that have the right crumb structure and give us the right mouth feel while eating.† This is showing how and why enzymes are used in industry. They are used to improve dairy products or to supply with breads that are good enough for us. Protease enzymes are used to make baby foods. In the book ‘Chemistry at a glance’ published by Roger Owen and Sue King it says on page 116 â€Å"proteins in baby foods may be pre-digested by proteases (enzymes which digest proteins). Babies are not very good at digesting the food when they first begin to eat solid foods. By using protease enzymes in the food, makes it easier for a baby’s digestive system to cope with it and then the babies can also get the amino acids that need from their food more easily. There are more enzymes used in industry like carbohydrases to convert starch into sugar (glucose syrup). There are many advantages and disadvantages of using enzymes. Enzymes can be good to use. In the AQA Science Biology textbook published in 2011 by Nelson Thornes Ltd suggests on page 173 that â€Å"in industrial processes, many o the reactions need high temperatures and pressures to make them go fast enough to produce the products needed. This needs expensive equipment and requires a lot of energy.† The good thing is that by using enzymes it would solve industrial problems like these. On the same page, it says the enzymes â€Å"catalyze at relatively low temperatures and normal pressures. This is why the enzyme-based processes are cheap to run. This is an advantage showing that by using enzymes it is cheaper and easier. There are also disadvantages of using enzymes. This is evident in the same book on the same page as it mentions, â€Å"one problem with enzymes is that they are denatured at high temperatures, so the temperature must be kept down†. This shows that by using enzymes they can be denatured so you would have to be careful and keep an eye on the temperature. In addition, the pH needs to be controlled and it costs money to control these conditions which means it is bad. You would have to pay to control theses conditions and if you do not then the enzymes would denature which is not good. The original BBC Bitesize GCSE website in the science section suggests that there are many enzymes, which are expensive to produce. This is evident on the website as it says, â€Å"In industry, enzymes allow reactions that normally need expensive, energy-demanding equipment to happen at normal temperatures and pressures. On the other hand, most enzymes are denatured at high temperatures.† This shows that many enzymes are quite expensive to produce and this is a disadvantage of using enzymes. In conclusion, enzymes are used in many places like homes and in the industry because they can be good in ways such as using them in baby food, which would help the digestive system of babies. However, there are also some disadvantages of using enzymes for example some enzymes can be very expensive to produce. I believe that enzymes should be used in some places and should not in others, this way I think that there would not be trouble caused.

A Resource-Based View of International Human Resources: Toward a Framework of Integrative and Creative Capabilities

Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies (CAHRS) CAHRS Working Paper Series Cornell University ILR School Year 2005 A Resource-Based View Of International Human Resources: Toward A Framework of Integrative and Creative Capabilities Shad S. Morris Cornell University Scott A. Snell Cornell University Patrick M. Wright Cornell University This paper is posted at [email  protected] http://digitalcommons. ilr. cornell. edu/cahrswp/284 CAHRS at Cornell University 187 Ives Hall Ithaca, NY 14853-3901 USA Tel. 607 255-9358 www. ilr. cornell. edu/CAHRS WORKING PAPER SERIES A Resource-Based View of International Human Resources: Toward a Framework of Integrative and Creative Capabilities Shad S. Morris Scott A. Snell Patrick M. Wright Working Paper 05 – 16 International Human Resources CAHRS WP05-16 A Resource-Based View Of International Human Resources: Toward A Framework of Integrative and Creative Capabilities Shad S. Morris Cornell University School of Industrial and Labor Relations 393 Ives Hall Ithaca, NY 14853 (607) 255-7622 [email  protected] edu Scott A. Snell Cornell University Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies (CAHRS) 393 Ives Hall Ithaca, NY 14853 (607) 255-4112 scott. [email  protected] edu Patrick M. Wright Cornell University Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies (CAHRS) 393 Ives Hall Ithaca, NY 14853 (607) 255-3429 [email  protected] edu http://www. ilr. cornell. edu/cahrs This paper has not undergone formal review or approval of the faculty of the ILR School. It is intended to make results of Center research av ailable to others interested in preliminary form to encourage discussion and suggestions. Most (if not all) of the CAHRS Working Papers are available for reading at the Catherwood Library. For information on what’s available link to the Cornell Library Catalog: http://catalog. library. cornell. edu if you wish. Page 2 International Human Resources Abstract CAHRS WP05-16 Drawing on organizational learning and MNC perspectives, we extend the resourcebased view to address how international human resource management provides sustainable competitive advantage. We develop a framework that emphasizes and extends traditional assumptions of the resource-based view by identifying the learning capabilities necessary for a complex and changing global environment. These capabilities address how MNCs might both create new HR practices in response to local environments and integrate existing HR practices from other parts of the firm (affiliates, regional headquarters, and global headquarters). In an effort to understand the nature of such capabilities, we discuss aspects of human capital, social capital, and organizational capital that might be linked to their development. Page 3 International Human Resources Introduction CAHRS WP05-16 Few will argue against the importance of international human resource management (IHRM) in today’s multinational corporation (MNC). A wide range of issues—that varies from global sourcing and off-shoring to regional trade agreements and labor standards to strategic alliances and innovation—all point to the vital nature of IHRM in today’s global economy. In fact, some observers have suggested that how firms manage their work forces is among the strongest predictors of successful versus unsuccessful MNCs (cf. , Bartlett & Ghoshal, 1989; Doz & Prahalad, 1986; Hedlund, 1986). Researchers have adopted a number of different theoretical approaches for studying IHRM. Not surprisingly, the resource-based view (RBV) of the firm has emerged as perhaps the predominant perspective (Wright, Dunford, and Snell, 2002). RBV is particularly attractive to IHRM researchers in that it focuses directly on the potential value of a firm’s internal asset stocks for conceiving and executing various strategies. This perspective departs from traditional I/O economic models of competitive advantage that focus on the structure of markets as the primary determinant of firm performance (Barney, 1991; Wernerfelt, 1984). Also in contrast with I/O economic models, the RBV is based on the assumption that resources are (1) distributed heterogeneously across firms and (2) remain imperfectly mobile over time. Because these asset stocks are unequal, there is the potential for comparative advantage. And when the resources are immobile, that advantage may be difficult to appropriate or imitate, thereby conferring a sustainable advantage In the context of MNCs, the premises of resource heterogeneity and immobility have particular relevance. While the RBV typically focuses on resource heterogeneity across firms, MNCs are unique in that they possess heterogeneity within their asset stocks as well. Because they operate in multiple environments, MNCs are likely to possess variations in both their people and practices that reflect local requirements, laws, and cultures. This variation is a potential source of advantage at a local level, and can provide a global advantage to the MNC as a whole if the knowledge, skills, and capabilities can be leveraged appropriately. Page 4 International Human Resources CAHRS WP05-16 However, while heterogeneous resources are potentially immobile across firms, they may also be immobile within firms (MNCs). Given that scholars have consistently noted the difficulties of integrating people and practices within MNCs (e. g. , Szulanski, 1996; McWilliams, Van Fleet, & Wright, 2001), the challenge of integration remains one of the more perplexing organizational and strategic issues. It is therefore somewhat surprising that IHRM researchers have not addressed this issue more directly. The purpose of this chapter is to summarize the literature on RBV and IHRM by addressing the ways in which resource heterogeneity and immobility provide potential advantages to MNCs. However, we also hope to extend the RBV in this context by addressing some of the primary challenges of—and capabilities needed to—create resources and integrate them across business units within the MNC. In this sense, we draw upon the knowledge-based view of the firm (KBV) and organizational learning perspectives to look at how practices are created and integrated on a global scale (Grant, 1996; Teece, Pisano, & Shuen, 1997). To organize this discussion, we break the chapter down into three parts: First, we review how the RBV has been applied to IHRM issues to date and discuss the underlying assumptions of this research. Second, we extend the RBV logic to more appropriately deal with issues of practice integration and creation within a globally dynamic environment by turning focus to aspects of learning capabilities. Finally, we discuss the implications for future research and where this extended view of RBV might improve research on a firm’s human resources. IHM, People, Practices, And Competitive Advantage Discussions of IHRM within the RBV framework focus on both the workforce (i. e. , the people) as well as the HR function (i. e. , the structures, policies and practices) (e. g. , Evans, Pucik, & Basoux, 2002; Fey & Bjorkman, 2001; MacDuffie, 1995; Schuler, Dowling, & De Cieri, 1993). To have a sustainable competitive advantage a firm must first possess people with different and better skills and knowledge than its competitors or it must possess HR practices that allow for differentiation from competitors. Second, these practices or skills and abilities should not be easy for competitors to duplicate or imitate (Wright, Dunford, & Snell, 2001). Page 5 International Human Resources Managing Global Workforces CAHRS WP05-16 Building on the assumptions of heterogeneity and immobility, scholars systematically stress the strategic contributions of people’s knowledge and skills to the performance of firms and sustained competitive advantage (Boxall, 1996). In fact, Barney (1991) developed a model to show how specific assets can be strategically identified to lead to sustainable competitive advantage. Building on this model, McWilliams, Van Fleet, and Wright (2001) argue that human resources, defined as the entire pool of employees, present a unique source of advantage in comparison to domestic labor pools in terms of value, rarity, inimitability, and nonsubstitutability (VRIN). Given the VRIN framework, McWilliams et al. (2001) argued that firms can benefit from a global workforce in two ways: (1) capitalizing on the global labor pools, and (2) exploiting the cultural synergies of a diverse workforce. First, global (heterogeneous) labor pools potentially provide superior human capital. This is because firms can draw from different labor pools to match the different needs of the firm (Bartlett & Ghoshal, 1989). For example, some labor pools may have workers who, on average, have higher cognitive ability or have had greater access to education and training. An MNC could potentially draw from the highest quality labor pools for those functions that require high cognitive ability and education and training (McWilliams et al. , 2001). Second, the use of heterogeneous labor pools potentially increases the quality of global business decision making. When an MNC draws from its multiple labor pools it has the potential to a build diverse and flexible cadre of managers that are better able to bring different perspectives to a decision than a management group based solely from the parent country (Ricks, 1993). That diversity also enables management to be flexible in applying their skills throughout the different parts of the firm. Wright and Snell (1998) discussed theses advantages in terms of resource flexibility and coordination flexibility. While McWilliams et al. (2001) highlighted the benefits of human resource heterogeneity and immobility; they also point out the difficulty in transferring and integrating these resources Page 6 International Human Resources CAHRS WP05-16 within the MNC. Drawing on Szulanski’s (1996) concept of stickiness, they note that the exchanges are made more difficult by â€Å"the lack of absorptive capacity of the recipient, causal ambiguity, and an arduous relationship between the source and the recipient† (Szulanski, 1996: 36). Yet, little research exists discussing how internal stickiness can be overcome in order to maximize the benefits of a global workforce while overcoming the challenges of integration and coordination. Managing Global HR Functions Placing people as the source of sustainable competitive advantage moves us to the dilemma of how best to manage their knowledge, skills, and abilities. Within the RBV literature, issues of resource heterogeneity and immobility underlie the inevitable tension between local responsiveness and global integration in MNCs (cf. Bae & Lawler, 2000; Brewster, 1999; Fey & Bjorkman, 2001; Sparrow, Schuler & Jackson, 1994). Local responsiveness and the value derived from customization implies variation—i. e. , heterogeneity—within the MNC. Global efficiency, on the other hand, requires integration across business units. However, given the assumption of resource immobility, this integration is not always easy to achieve. Schuler et al. (1993) captured the e ssence of these tradeoffs by highlighting the relationships between internal operations and interunit linkages. From the standpoint of internal operations, each overseas affiliate must operate as effectively as possible relative to the competitive strategy of the MNC. This means that these affiliates can offer advantages to the MNC by recognizing and developing HR practices that are appropriate for their local markets, employment laws, cultural traditions, and the like. While internal operations at the local level are important, the MNC must also establish interunit linkages to gain efficiencies of scale and scope across several different countries. This suggests that while overseas affiliates can generate advantages locally, there are also substantial advantages that can be gained globally through integrated HR practices. Each is important, but each carries with it a different set of organizational requirements. These requirements point directly to issues relevant for HRM. Page 7 International Human Resources CAHRS WP05-16 Extending these ideas, Taylor, Beechler, and Napier (1996) describe how MNCs might develop a more integrative approach to HRM. The objective of this strategy is to share best practices from all parts of the firm (not just corporate) to create a worldwide system. While there are allowances for local differentiation, the focus is on substantial global integration. Differentiation provides both the potential for local response and customization, as well as the variety of ideas and practices needed for innovation at the global level. However, integration through coordination, communication, and learning is not always easily achieved in this context. Ironically, the very characteristics that provide resource-based advantage at the local level actually complicate integration at the global level. The ability of firms to gain efficiencies of scope and scale at a global level is made more difficult by resource heterogeneity, and this challenge is exacerbated by resource immobility. The challenge then for the transnational firm is to identify how firms can preserve variety (and local customization) while simultaneously establishing a foundation for integration and efficiency. As mentioned by McWilliams et al. (2001) very few scholars have addressed the â€Å"stickiness† issue involved in balancing the global and local tension. Taylor et al. 1996) allude to such integration difficulties when they note: â€Å"The reason firms move toward an exportive rather than an integrative SIHRM orientation†¦is that the mechanism to identify and transfer the best HRM practices in their overseas affiliates are not in place. Such mechanisms as having regional or global meetings of affiliate HR directors, transferring HRM materials (e. g. , performance appraisal forms to affiliates) or posting of the HR director of the affiliates to the HQs of the firm were not developed†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (p. 972). These same capability issues are raised by McWilliams et al. 2001) when they discuss the major causes of internal stickiness being lack of absorptive capacity, causal ambiguity, and arduous relationships between the source and recipient. In both examples, barriers to global practice integration are raised and discussed, but not resolved. This issue is addressed more fully below. Page 8 International Human Resources IHM And Capabilities CAHRS WP05-16 Given the importance—and difficulty—of integrating human resources at a global level, while preserving the uniqueness and heterogeneity at the local level, it seems reasonable to discuss these issues in the context of competitive capabilities. Based on the knowledge based view (KBV) of firms, that emphasizes the need to acquire and integrate knowledge, we suggest two such capabilities (see Figure 1). First, knowledge integration capability refers to a firm’s ability to transfer and coordinate human resources across affiliates in a way that utilizes economies of scale and scope while allowing and promoting responsiveness to the local environment. Second, knowledge creation capability refers to a firms’ ability to create new and potentially innovative practices at the local level. Figure 1 IHRM: People, Practices, and Capabilities Focus Theories RBV: Focus on individual resources of knowledge, skills, and abilities RBV and Competencies: Focus on combined resources of HR practices Strategic Question Workforce: What are the knowledge, skills, and abilities that are heterogeneous and immobile? HR Practices and Systems: What are the HR practices and systems that are heterogeneous and immobile? Learning Capabilities: How can HR practices and systems be created and integrated to preserve heterogeneity and immobility? Sources McWilliams, Van Fleet, & Wright, 2001 People Practices Taylor, Beechler, & Napier, 1996 KBV and Organizational Capabilities: Capabilities Focus on learning processes and capabilities Chadwick & Cappelli, 1999 Knowledge Integration Capability Ironically, while learning capability is one of the key dimensions of the Bartlett and Ghoshal (1989) framework of transnational organizations, most IHRM researchers have made only passing mention of how firms share and integrate best practice within the MNC. Snell, Youndt, and Wright (1996) argued that, particularly in dynamic environments, organizational learning may be the only way to ensure that resources sustain their value and uniqueness over Page 9 International Human Resources CAHRS WP05-16 time. In essence, the capability to integrate HR practices better than competitors may be a key source of sustainable competitive advantage (cf. , Kogut & Zander, 1992). In the sections below, we frame the key factors underlying knowledge integration capability in terms of organizational capital, social capital, and human capital. Organizational Capital. Youndt, Subramaniam, and Snell (2004) define organizational capital as the institutionalized knowledge and codified experiences residing within an organization. Artifacts of organizational capital include an organization’s reliance on manuals and databases to preserve knowledge, along with the establishment of structures, processes, and routines that encourage repeated use of this knowledge (Hansen, Hohria, & Tierney, 1999). As an integration mechanism, organizational capital allows the firm to preserve knowledge as incoming employees replace those leaving. An example of such an artifact might be a â€Å"lessons learned† database to ensure that lessons learned by one group can be made accessible for all groups. Based on MNC research, in order to improve the integration of knowledge within an MNC relative to the speed of its diffusion or imitation by competitors, firms invest in ways to make knowledge explicit by encoding its use and replicating it in rules and documentation (Kogut & Zander, 1993). Other forms of organizational capital are likely to represent detailed, company-wide routines on how new HR practices should be integrated by all affiliates. These routines may detail how practices should be shared to reduce the variance and time it takes to implement each new approach, and thereby, improve the overall efficiency of knowledge integration (March, 1991). Similarly, organizations typically implement information systems to provide affiliates with a common platform for HR processes and practices (Snell, Stueber & Lepak, 2002). These systems, processes, and routines ensure that: (1) practices are implemented routinely through established data collection procedures and (2) practices are rapidly disseminated throughout the entire MNC with minimal costs (Daft & Weick, 1984). In terms of integration capability, then, organizational capital provides a basis for sharing and Page 10 International Human Resources CAHRS WP05-16 institutionalizing knowledge across affiliates. However, it may work against efforts to preserve heterogeneity at the sub-unit level. Social Capital. Social capital—defined as the knowledge embedded within social networks—also plays a potentially valuable role in the integration capability of MNCs (Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998). For example, Szulanski (1995) found that one of the biggest obstacles to transfer knowledge in MNCs is the poor relationship between sources and recipients of information. Along this line, Ghoshal and Bartlett (1989) empirically showed that knowledge sharing and integration could not occur without the existence of strong social connections. The importance of social capital for integration capability is found in research by Kostova and Roth (2002), who concluded that successful practice adoption is largely dependent upon relationships based on trust and shared identity. Trust provides the motive to interact with others, while shared identity provides an overlapping understanding of what is important to share. Both of these elements of social capital would seem vital for integration capability. And importantly, neither of them would de facto require the loss of local autonomy. Human Capital. While organizational and social capital are both potentially important resources underlying a firm’s integration capability, Teece (1977) argued that one of the principle obstacles to transfer and integration is lack of prior experience and knowledge (i. e. , human capital). Research by Szulanski (1996) and Tsai (2002), for example, has shown that knowledge sharing and integration is facilitated when respective parties have the absorptive capacity or prior experience to understand related ideas (Szulansk, 1996; Tsai, 2002). In the context of MNCs, Haas (2004) showed that groups with large amounts of international experience are more likely to integrate knowledge from other parts of the organization than those that do not. Similarly, Gregersen and Black (1992) found that not only is international experience important for integration, but when it is coupled with experience in corporate headquarters affiliates are more likely to maintain allegiance to the overall goals of the firm. These international and corporate skills and knowledge are often gained through transfers and rotational assignments that enable the HR function to develop a more complex Page 11 International Human Resources CAHRS WP05-16 and global orientation. This provides them with the ability to more systematically manage the integration process (Kedia & Bhagat, 1988). Such forms of human capital can also correct any tendency of HR subunits to assume that the situation in the host country is unique; thus avoiding the not-invented-here syndrome. The upshot of this discussion s is that a firm’s integration capability likely depends on a combination of human, social, and organizational capital. Social and organizational capital are alternative—and potentially complementary—resources for knowledge and practice sharing. Human capital, in turn, is important for absorbing or acquiring that knowledge. As firms develop the capability to integrate existing practices they potentially can achieve economies of scale and scope through HRM. And when these integrative mechanisms preserve resource heterogeneity at a local level, it may lead to a more rapid response to a global environment and greater potential for competitive advantage. Figure 2 Capabilities: Creative and Integrative Focus Market Assumption Value Proposition Sources Integrative Capabilities Stable Market: Resources must be combined and integrated to maintain an advantage Combining resources in ways that others cannot copy creates benefits arising from scarcity Taylor, Beechler, & Napier, 1996; McWilliams, Van Fleet, & Wright, 2001 Creative Capabilities Dynamic Market: Resources must be reconfigured and created to maintain an advantage Developing new resources that competitors don’t yet have creates benefits arising from innovation Chadwick & Cappelli, 1999; Snell, Youndt, and Wright; 1996 Page 12 International Human Resources Knowledge Creation Capability CAHRS WP05-16 In the context of organizational learning and the KBV, it is important to distinguish knowledge integration capability from knowledge creation capability. Just because a firm is able to integrate practices across affiliates does not mean that it will be able to create new practices as well (See Figure 2). Creation capabilities allow the MNC to develop new practices that lead to resource heterogeneity in the first place. While few HRM researchers have mentioned the importance of integration mechanisms, fewer still have discussed the importance of creation mechanisms that renew a firm’s stock of HR practices. This is despite the fact that as firms continually integrate practices, it is imperative that new practices are created and developed that allows for innovation and continuous improvement in a changing environment. Therefore, in global environments characterized by rapid change and increasing competition, static concepts of heterogeneity may no longer be sufficient to explain (and sustain) a competitive advantage. An ongoing debate in strategy is whether any static view of resources can really explain a competitive advantage that is sustainable over time (Lippman & Rumelt, 1982). For example, Grant (1996) argues that idiosyncratic advantages naturally erode over time. This debate is especially relevant in the global environment where what might create a competitive advantage at one point in time or in one location, may not at another point in time or location. Hence, it is vital that MNCs develop the capability to create and renew HR practices in order to maintain a competitive advantage. Ghoshal & Bartlett (1988) stated that MNCs â€Å"create† new products, practices, or systems locally, using specific mechanisms to respond to local circumstances. Creating local HR practices lies at the heart of an MNC’s capability to be responsive to the unique and changing opportunities of different environments. Below, we discuss how human capital, social capital, and organizational capital might influence the knowledge creation capability of new HR practices. (See Figure 3 for an overview of mechanisms that influence knowledge integration and creation capabilities). Page 13 International Human Resources CAHRS WP05-16 Figure 3 Capabilities: Human Capital, Social Capital, Organizational Capital Human Capital Social Capital Organizational Capital Creative Capability †¢In-depth local experience †¢International experience outside of corporate †¢Broad internal network range †¢Broad external network range †¢Local Market Relationships †¢Localized routines †¢Creative processes and systems †¢Norms of informality †¢Overarching principles or guidelines Increasing Influence on Creative Capability Integrative Capability Increasing Influence on Integrative Capability †¢Absorptive capacity †¢International and corporate experience †¢Internal Social connections †¢Shared perceptions and identity †¢Internal Trust †¢Company-wide rules and routines †¢Corporate culture of sharing †¢Interactive technologies †¢Data collection system Human Capital. The knowledge and experience—i. e. , human capital—of the people within the HR function is a key factor in new HR practice creation—whether of new practice ideas, or of improvements in the practices (Lepak & Snell, 1999). For example, HR functions possessing large amounts of local knowledge and experience should be able to effectively create practices on their own in response to the various, changing environments. This localized experience helps them to understand the needs of local clients and suppliers, which allows them to develop practices that are unique to each region or country, and hence, heterogeneous across the firm. Page 14 International Human Resources CAHRS WP05-16 International experiences are also important for creating new HR practices. For example, because international experience is often highly valued in MNCs (e. g. , Mendenhall & Stahl, 2000), people with international skills and knowledge are more likely to be seen by others as being confident and willing to share divergent opinions and advocate for their own position (Stasser, Stewart, & Wittenbaum, 1995). Moreover, Gregersen & Black (1992) showed that people with strong experience in many international settings and limited experience in corporate are more likely to make changes based on local demands rather than pressures from central parts of the firm. This is most likely due to the people’s array of international experiences that have detached them from an allegiance with the company as a whole. Social Capital. Specific aspects of social capital have been argued to play a role in knowledge creation. For example, while Hansen (2002) argued that social networks provide an important conduit for the sharing of knowledge, he also argued that such networks play a role in knowledge creation because they inform network members about the existence, location, and significance of new knowledge. Burt (1982) found that networks comprising a broader range of contacts will have a more heterogeneous base of information and knowledge to draw from. While such wide networks may not always facilitate a deep flow of knowledge, they offer different reference points for HR members to make comparisons and explore new ideas. A firm’s ability to find new opportunities is likely to be a function of multiple local contacts. HR affiliates often have critical links with local vendors and, perhaps, competing HR groups that allow them to pursue local opportunities (Bartlett & Ghoshal, 1989; Hedlund, 1986). Birkinshaw (1997) refers to these as relationships within the ‘local market’. Within the local market an affiliate is likely to be embedded in different types of relationships (Ghoshal & Bartlett, 1990; Ghoshal & Nohria, 1989). McEvily and Zaheer (1999) argue that because each part of the MNC maintains different local patterns of network linkages, they are exposed to new knowledge, ideas, and opportunities. Organizational Capital. In many cases, organizational capital may actually hinder knowledge creation capability. The formalized processes, systems, structures, etc. ave a Page 15 International Human Resources CAHRS WP05-16 tendency to reinforce existing routines and obviate against variation and change that engender creativity. However, in some instances, organizational capital may facilitate flexibility in the course of actions that allow a firm to attend to environmental cues. This is especially true when employees are encouraged to take action that supersede compan y-wide, standardized routines in favor of localized response that allows knowledge assimilation from the local environment (Daft & Weick, 1984). For example, parts of the firm may develop creative processes and systems to identify problems, develop hypotheses, communicate ideas to others, and contradict what would normally be expected (Torrence, 1988). Grant (1996) argued that such creative routines and processes offer an efficient framework for people to create new, situation-specific practices by utilizing local perspectives in developing practices for the firm. Though potentially problematic for the integrative capability, localized routines and creative processes help affiliates relate better with local vendors, clients, and competitors by providing a set of expectations and processes that encourage HR groups to turn to the surrounding environment. For example, an HR affiliate may have developed a simple manual or informal norm of what to do when developing a new practice. Such a routine is likely to leave many gaps in exact steps to follow, but provide an overview or value to help the HR group be innovative. This simple routine allows the local HR group to assimilate knowledge more quickly from its employees and develop practices to meet their needs. In summary, these aspects of human capital, social capital, and organizational capital help us identify how the knowledge integration and creation capabilities might occur within an MNC. Some of these forms of capital are more useful depending upon the capability it is supporting, and ironically, some of these mechanisms that influence integration might actually hinder knowledge creation and vice versa. For example, firms heavy in local knowledge and experiences and weak in international experiences might have a negative affect on a firm’s ability to integrate practices across the various parts of the firm. Such strong human capital is likely to promote the not-invented-here syndrome through the affiliate’s strong belief and experience base dealing exclusively with the local environment. Similarly, rigid forms of Page 16 International Human Resources CAHRS WP05-16 organizational capital, in terms of standardized routines and shared electronic databases, might deter the various parts of HR to develop and create practices on their own. This could largely stem from the fact that so much structure and support for integration is in place that HR groups fail to find time to bring about new practices or adapt existing practices to the local environment. Implications For Research And Theory The unique complexities and challenges faced by today’s global firms present different implications for the RBV and its application to strategic IHRM. For example, because a large amount of the international management literature focuses on variances in cultural, geographical, and institutional pressures; the implications for applying the RBV become more complex. As MNCs struggle to create and integrate their practices across borders, they are faced with unique challenges that either push for global efficiency or local responsiveness. These challenges open the discussion for ways to actually manage both the creation and integration of knowledge on a global scale. This means that the questions typically asked by strategic IHRM scholars (e. g. , HR practices and performance) should be augmented with questions of how HR practices are created and integrated in ways that lead toward resource heterogeneity and immobility. To create a sustainable competitive advantage firms must not only be able to respond to their local environments or standardize their practices across the firm. They must be able to balance a tension of practice heterogeneity through local practice creation and immobility of those practices through their integration across the firm. One theoretical implication of this discussion calls for a greater understanding of the rents found through the creation and integration of HR practices. As Chadwick and Dabu (2004) explain, a marriage of rent concepts with theories of the firm (i. e. RBV) is essential to describing firm’s competitive advantages and particularly in understanding how actors within firms can take conscious steps to toward a sustainable competitive advantage. The current strategic IHRM literature strongly alludes to the importance of integration and being able to Page 17 International Human Resources CAHRS WP05-16 organize heterogeneous resources in a way that is diff icult for competitors to imitate. The assumption here is that heterogeneity and immobility of resources creates greater performance or rents arising from scarcity—Ricardian rents (cf. , Carpenter, Sanders, Gregersen, 2001). In essence, Ricardian rents can be rooted in the cross-border integration of various HR practices. The integration of such practices not only assures that some of them will be unique to the firm, but that they will be difficult for others to imitate—making them scarce in the market. The advantages that come from constant creation of HR practices operates under a different principle than traditional resources leading to Ricardian rents. Rather than rents arising from scarcity, the creation capability perspective emphasizes rents arising from market discontinuities—Schumpeterian rents (cf. Carpenter et al. , 2001). Schumpeterian rents derive from a firm’s ability to exploit or leverage resources to address changing environments (Teece et al. , 1997; Amit & Schoemaker, 1993). Based on Schumpeterian rents, a focus on the continuous creation of resources can enable a firm to achieve competitive advantage on a sustainable basis by developing new practices that lead to practice heterogeneity across a complex and ambiguous global network. Hence, as mentioned by Lado and Wilson (1994) and Teece et al. 1997), turning to these dynamic capabilities as an extended approach to the RBV offers a closer understanding of the actual sources of competitive advantage in a changing global environment. While we discuss the main mechanisms driving knowledge creation and integration (Grant, 1996), aspects of integration tend to focus on a broad array of learning processes, including knowledge sharing, transfer, codification, adoption, and/or institutionalization. Further research should look at how different aspects of the integration process might be influenced by specific human, social, and organizational capital mechanisms. For example, Hansen and Haas (2001) showed that many firms have little difficulty in sharing knowledge across various units of the firm, but that the actual application or institutionalization of this knowledge is a completely different matter. While other scholars such as Kogut and Zander (1992) and Schulz (2001) have theoretically separated integration to include transfer and integration (or combination), very Page 18 International Human Resources CAHRS WP05-16 little practical research has been done on what factors might influence the transfer and what factors might influence the integration of knowledge. Clearly, there must be differences since research such as Hansen and Haas’ (2001) notice the disparity in knowledge that is shared and knowledge that is actually applied. Also, while the ideas presented in this chapter are rooted in theory, empirical research is needed to determine the impact of human, social,, and organizational capital on knowledge creation and integration capabilities. While theory suggests that aspects of all three of these factors will influence both capabilities, it is most probable that aspects of human capital will more strongly influence the creative capability. This is largely due to the fact that people and their knowledge and skills are what allows the different HR affiliates the ability to develop local practices on their own, without interference or supervision from regional or corporate headquarters. Similarly, social and organizational capital should have their strongest influences on the integrative capability. This is due, in part, to the conduits and repositories created from aspects of social capital and organizational capital, respectively. In fact, as we mentioned earlier, some aspects of organizational capital might have a negative effect on the firm’s ability to create new practices (knowledge), while some aspects of human capital may have a negative effect on the firm’s ability to integrate those practices across affiliates. Conclusion The purpose of this chapter has been to summarize the literature on RBV and IHRM in multinational firms by addressing the ways in which resource heterogeneity and immobility provide potential advantages to MNCs. However, we have also attempted to extend the RBV in this context by addressing some of the primary challenges of—and capabilities needed to— integrate resources across business units within the MNC. The solution frequently used by firms has been to standardize HR practices and policies at a global level, but this solves the integration problem while destroying the advantages of local Page 19 International Human Resources CAHRS WP05-16 variety. The challenge as we see it is identifying how firms can preserve variety (and local customization) while simultaneously establishing a foundation for integration and efficiency. The ability for HR managers to balance this tension lies in the development of capabilities to create and integrate practices across the global HR function. We extended traditional views of RBV to include aspects of practice integration and creation. Such capabilities allow firms to constantly renew their HR practices in a way that allows them to respond to multiple external pressures while being coordinated and integrated to ensure that these practices drive the firm’s sustainable competitive advantage. Page 20 International Human Resources References CAHRS WP05-16 Amit, R. , & Schoemaker, P. J. H. 993. Strategic assets and organizational rent. Strategic Management Journal, 14: 33-46. Bae, J. , & Lawler, J. J. 2000. Organizational and HRM strategies in Korea: Impact on firm performance in an emerging economy. Academy of Management Journal, 43: 502-517. Barney, J. B. 1991. Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17: 99-120. Barney, J. 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