Thursday, December 27, 2018
'Genetics of Obesity Essay\r'
'According to the WHO (2010), childhood fleshiness is one of the most safe public wellness challenges of the 21st century. Globally, in 2010 the piece of over encumbrance children under the progress of 5 is estimated to be over 42 million (WHO, 2010). Obesity can be defined in a number of ways, e.g. by population means, BMI and waist circle (Odgen, 2012). And jibe to Kleiser et al (2009), obesity whitethorn pick out several short-term consequences (e.g. accessible discrimination, depressive disorderer quality of life, step-upd cardiovascular put on the line factors, diseases like asthma) and long-term consequences were obesity is likely to persist into adulthood, were separates atomic number 18 more(prenominal) likely to develop noncommunicable diseases e.g. diabetes and cardiovascular disease at a a lot younger date. It is due to this that a groovy body of look within health psychology has focused on not only the consequences of obesity alone as well understand ing the causes of obesity, both communicable and environmental Ã¢â¬ this is what this essay will exploreÃ¢â¬Â¦. contagious science\r\nThere hit been several theories pitch forward by seek to ruff explain the causes obesity and one major potential causes is patrimonials. Maffeis et al (1998) show that obesity in parents was the strongest predictor of childhood obesity, disregardless(prenominal) of diet or level of activity. moreover recent research has prepare provide for this claim. Moreover, Wardle et al., (2001, 2006) reported that, discoverling for other environmental factors, children with obese parents preferred fatty regimens, had less liking for vegetables, were more likely to gourmandize had a loftyer preference for inactive activities than did children of normal weight parents. This is further modify by more recent research by Kleiser et al (2009) who found that the strongest epitope of obesity was obesity in parents.\r\npatronage the evidence for thi s relationship, Odgen (2012) states that parents and children not only lot genetic constitution but overly share very interchangeable environments, thence this relationship in the midst of child and enatic obesity could be contributed to either factor. However, according to Barlow (2013) twin studies pick out also countenance clearly demonst judged a genetic influence on body weight, accordingly strengthening the argument for the role of genetics in obesity. For instance studies mother found 25 Ã¢â¬ 40 % of BMI is heritable and indistinguishable correspond raised apart have been found to have a correlation of .7, only slightly lower than that of twins raised together (Stunkard et al, 1990). Moreover espousal studies have also provided evidence for a genetic component in obesity, Skunkard (1986) found a strong relationship amidst the weight class of the adoptee and their biological parents and interestingly found no relationship with their adoptee parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ weig ht class.\r\nResearch has also stated that factors such as metabolous rate (Bouchard, 1990) and appetite regulation may also have a role to play in causing obesity. Research in equipment casualty of metabolic rate has provokeed a low resting metabolic rate is a risk factor for weight assume (Tataranni, 2003), but in fact on that point is puny research to support this. In crabby there is no evidence to suggest that overweight people tend to have slightly higher metabolic grade than thin people of a similar height (Garrow, 1987; Odgen, 2012). A genetic predisposition may also be link up to appetite control. For instance, the discovery of leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, and other hormones that inÃ¯Â¬âuence appetite, satiety, and fat distribution provides insight into metabolic mechanisms for physiological risk of obesity (Maes et al, 1997; Gale et al, 2004).\r\nResearch, although seen to be in its infancy has yielded support, e.g. Farooqi et al (1999) injected 2 participants daily with leptin, which resulted in decreased food uptake and weight loss at a rate of 1-2kg per month. According to Odgen (2012) there is strong evidence for a genetic basis to obesity, but it is how this genetic deflect expresses itself that remains unclear, due to the fact research on lowered metabolic rate has been widely refuted and the genetics of appetite control remain in its infancy. Furthermore, genetic studies are not without their criticisms. For instance small taste size, zygosity needs to be confirmed and over again the role of environmental factors cannot be ignored.\r\n behavior & Environmental factors\r\nTherefore in light of the above criticisms research has begun to more fully examine the extent to which an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour and/or environment can influence the development of obesity. As Barlow (2013) states that at a population level, the increase in prevalence is too speedy to be explained by a genetic shift; rather, it must result from chan ges in eating and physical activity behaviours that have shifted. A recent study by Kileser (2009) found independently of other factors, a positive association was observed\r\nbetween obesity and low SES, migration background (up to age 13), parental overweight, high weight gain during pregnancy (when the mother is of normal weight), motherly smoking during pregnancy, high birth weight, and high media consumption, as well as a negative association with sleep eon for 3- to 10-year olds.\r\n'