Friday, June 7, 2019

Foundations of Behavior Essay Example for Free

Foundations of Behavior EssayThe field of psychology is expanding and credit is due to the numerous look into studies being conducted. These interrogation studies utilize different methods and each method has its own utilitys and disadvantages. In this paper, five popular query methods will be comp ared based on their characteristics, objectives, strengths and weaknesses, research techniques, validity, and reliability. These research methods are case study, naturalistic annotation, survey research, correlational research, and the experimental method.The case study is a focused study on a person or a specific aggroup or a particular situation. Its research design involves five components, which are the study questions, the propositions, the units of analysis, the logic linking the data to the propositions, and the criteria for interpreting the findings (Tellis, 1997). gaucherie studies have varying purposes. few case studies are conducted to either confirm or challenge a n existing theory, while others are carried out to describe either a special or an extreme case.A case study obtains information from documents (letters and newspapers), archival records (service records, survey data), interviews, direct observation (done when field visits are needed), participant-observation, and physical artifacts (instruments and tools). adept of the most established techniques in case studies is called pattern-matching, in which the data is linked to propositions. The reliability of case studies is relatively high, especially when protocols are established. However, validity, especially creation validity, sometimes becomes questionable because the detective might be subjective in his decisions and interpretations.This can be minimized by utilizing multiple sources, by setting up a chain of evidence, and by asking major informants to review a draft of the case study. The common criticism against case studies is that its results cannot be used to mystify at g eneralizations. just the sterling(prenominal) strength of case studies is that it can present an in-depth and holistic knowledge about a particular situation, group, or person. The naturalistic observation is unique from all other types of observation in that the researcher does not hinder, interrupt or influence the environment being study.One of the vital things to gestate in conducting naturalistic observation is to record as much detail as possible, which includes smell, sound, taste, time, place, number of participants, and feelings. This is why journals and a variety of writing materials are utilized. But the use of any recording device, such as video cameras, is not allowed because it violates the privacy of the observed individual. The reliability of this research method relies on the the true of observation. One technique of increasing reliability is to have several observers (Hesse, 2003).The greatest advantage of naturalistic observation is that it is considerably le ss expensive than other methods. But, the subjects being studied may act differently because of their awareness of the presence of the observer. This will significantly reduce the validity of the results (Piercy, 2007). The survey research is characterized by its major means of salt away information. The researcher usually goes out and asks questions. The questions can be oral or in written form. And the respondents can be chosen in many ways. Some respondents are chosen at random while others must possess certain characteristics.For example, if a survey research is about elementary teachers, then a high school teacher will not be asked to answer the questionnaire. The techniques involved in survey research lie in the analysis of the peaceful data. The reliability and validity of survey research are affected by several factors, such as the quality of the sets of questions or the questionnaire, the amount of data collected, and the accuracy in using measures of central tendencies a nd variability. Ideally, the questionnaire must be standardized. Greater reliability and validity is achieved if the sample represents a greater part of the total population.One advantage of the survey method is that it is relatively cheap and easy. Unfortunately, it is also subject to pitying error and biases (Government of Saskatchewan, 2002). The correlational research is essentially the discovery of a relationship amongst two variables. Unlike the previously described methods, correlational research is quantitative in nature. The different techniques used in a correlational research are regression and prediction, multiple regression, factor analysis, and systems analysis (Davis, 2004). The greatest advantage of using this method is that its results can be used to formulate predictions and generalizations.This is due to the nature of the research techniques. But the greatest danger of this method is to over-generalize. It must be remembered that an established relationship amo ngst two variables does not mean a cause-effect relationship between them. If a researcher wanted to establish a cause-effect relationship, then the research method to use is the experimental method. Similar to the correlational research, it is concerned with variables, which can be either independent or dependent variables. The independent variables are usually manipulated so that there will be two groups being studied, the experimental group and the control group.These two groups have the same characteristics except for that one variable which is being tested. The difference between these two groups can be found in the dependent variable. The reliability of this method is increased by conducting the same experiment for several times. Its validity lies in the accuracy of the procedures and the careful handling and analysis of results. The greatest advantage of the experimental method is that it can present an explanation to a certain phenomenon. But it takes great skill and experie nce on the part of the researcher in order to conduct a good research experiment.One problem of experimental method is the issue of ethics in conducting experiments using human subjects. Any of these research methods can be utilized to examine an issue or phenomenon in psychology. The basis of choice usually depends on the goal of the research. The depute of the researcher is to maximize the advantages and minimize the disadvantages of the chosen method.BibliographyDavis, J. (2004). Correlational research methods. Retrieved October 12, 2007 at http//clem. mscd. edu/davisj/prm2/correl1. hypertext markup language Government of Saskatchewan. (2002). Psychology 20 Social Psychology A curriculum Guide for the Secondary Level.Retrieved October 12, 2007 at http//www. sasked. gov. sk. ca/docs/social/psych20/support_materials/faqnaturalistic_observation. htm Hesse, B. E. (2003). Issues in naturalistic observation. Retrieved October 12, 2007 at http//psyc. csustan. edu/bhesse/psy2020/Lectur es/Fall03/p2020U2L5. pdf Piercy, J. (2007). Research methods. Retrieved October 12, 2007 at http//courses. cvcc. vccs. edu/Psychology_Piercy/research_methods1. htm Tellis, W. (1997). Introduction to case study. The Qualitative Report. 3(2). Retrieved October 12, 2007 at http//www. nova. edu/ssss/QR/QR3-2/tellis1. html

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